Tagged: 360 Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • charliex 6:29 pm on August 31, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 360, 460, , , zevatech   

    Juki 360 rebuild at [Null Space Labs] 


    This is log of the current work we’re doing at NSL http://032.la

    Rather than hand build all the badges for our  socal security conference layerOne again, http://www.layerone.org/ we’ve gone to a pick and place machine.

    Gleep found us a Juki(Zevatech) Placemat 360 (that seems to  have been upgraded to a 460 ) pick and place machine. It was sold as ‘working’, the sellers definition was, if I’m completely honest a stretch (outright lie).

    This is actually our second pick and place machine, we don’t mention the other one Smile

    We’re also interested in acquiring a Zevatech/Juki 460 if you have one for a decent price.

    Basically he demo’d everything that didn’t need a compressor, that all worked. Of course everything that needed a compressor as we found out later, didn’t work! Still $1,200 isn’t bad.

    I used my supersilent 20a as a temporary compressor, it only has a small  < 1 gallon tank, but its actually quiet, we used the 8 gallon compressor at null space which is deafening, so i found a 3 gallon temporary one at harbour freight for cheap in their recent sale. its too small though, so we’ll need shop air at some point. The supersilent was causing the pickup head to fail to work after a few passes, so this caused as a few false starts, the machine needs a solid air supply to function , even in testing.


    The existing filter and pressure regulator was a mess, so off to home depot to come back with the best we could find there, which isn’t that great.


    This is the old one, remember sold as working. No filter, and all these bits were just lying around inside it.

    The machine itself is based on the PC-8801 Z80 4mhz CP/M which I recognised straight away as my old job had me doing game conversions in Japan for the PC-9801.



    The whole machine works pretty much on the principal of that if the CNC software said do this, do that, that it executed perfectly. Only limit, head, home and the tool changer have checks.

    We fired it up , Krs and Gleep got it picking and placing a few resistors (though they somehow managed to get the tape removal part completely wrong and it was throwing resistors all over the place. Then mmca got it placing QFP parts correctly. The lamp spot system was off, the 90’o rotation was off, the tubes were old and cracking. Compressor filter was non existent and rusted out. We’ve also discovered the whole thing is covered in parts from the previous owners, we’ve scored a few 100 0805s and some IC’s.


    Free Parts!

    The reed sensor was the first thing we found that was broken, a quick trip to eBay and a few days later we had replacements. Luckily Juki is in heavy use, and they use a lot of off the shelf components. Apparently the later 5xx machines do switch to a proprietary drive system.


    The reed switch detects if the head is up or down. Its one of the few sensors in this machine. The bend has caused the wiring to break down internally over the years. so the machine gets confused about being up or down, and the software doesn’t cope well with that, it basically needs a full reset afterwards.


    The new sensors , $9 from eBay.

    I also bought a CPLD based floppy emulator from Poland, it hasn’t arrived yet and we’ll probably be done with the new system before it gets here, and we’ve discovered the speed stays the same but floppy drives won’t last so the SD is still a good replacement.

    Placing QFPS (AT90CAN128)

    Fashioned a quick tray for the IC placements. We use these great little boxes, also from eBay, for holding SMD components, they double up as handy platforms too.



    The feeder is controlled by the head, it moves over the spring loaded pin and pushes it down, this releases air and the notched wheel on the right moves the component reel tape one step, at the same time the protective covering tape is peeled away, allowing the machine to come back and pick the part up. This time, they’re correctly threaded, previously the protective tape was wrapped around the pin in the middle.

    Side view of feeders, you can see the reel of components on the left, and the pneumatics underneath. Its important to choose a pick and place with a widely available  range of cheap feeders, all too often people buy a cheap pick and place then find out it has none, and it’ll cost $1000’s to get them, if at all.

    Feeder with pneumatic assembly

    The expansion board

    This is the board inside the machine, it is a couple of 8255s which are the defacto standard for PC parallel IO, almost every PC has had one or more of these, they’ve since moved into the ASIC’s but the principle is the same. It memory maps each of the input/outputs of the machine so that host PC can see them. I pulled off the floppy image, copied the files to my PC and reverse engineered the controller code with IDA.


    I found an IMG of the floppy online, this was MFM encoded . So i converted that to a raw binary file, and then used cpmtools to copy the files from it. I was hoping to find some of the saved files so we could reverse the format and write a quick tool to do the placement. Once the files were copied off i tried a few of the different PC-8801 emulators, M88 etc, but had no joy in getting it running. So finally I just pulled apart the CP/M COM files in IDA and see what we could find.

    The teaching process is tedious, so reversing the format would have been worthwhile.

    Interface board

    This board takes the IO from the PC, buffers 74LS240 it and uses power darlingtons FT5723M to switch the 24V signals for the pneumatics.  As well as read the various sensors and the + / – for the motors. The motors and stepper drivers are off the shelf, but very nice, we even have newer versions of the motors and controllers at NSL.I’ve removed the bottom connector to make it easier to take pictures.

    The grey cable that has been added later is the automatic tool changer, this is soldered directly in the spare connections , 5V and 24V VDC. The 5V powers the small adapter board in the ATC and the 24V is for the pneumatic switches.

    The remaining signals are multiplexed IO that are demuxed by a 74Ls138 on the ATC board, which deviates from the way the rest of the board works as the rest are all controlled by the darlingtons directly.

    Each function of the machine is basically <control> – <buffer> — <pc> – <memory map>

    So if you want the head to go down, you flip a bit in the PC’s memory. Its all digital IO, nothing fancy at all. The only extra part is the 5V TTL to 24VDC for the pneumatic switches.

    Stepper drivers and power supplies.

    The stepper drivers are on the bottom, the other one is to the right under the tray. the two power supplies are just visible at the top right, one is a 5V the other a 24V. The power filter is in the lower left.

    Power supply

    Stepper motor driver

    XY gantry

    Since the machine was in bad need of service, we stripped it down, here the XY belts are visible. The top side has the the driver motor and the bottom side gets its power from a rod under the bed on the right side, so both belts are moved in unison. The ATC is in the top right and the frame in the middle is what is left of the PCB holder.


    Tearing it down.

    The head

    mmca stripped the head down. here it is removed from the gantry. mainly because there is a piece of string visible , and we can’t figure out what its for.


    Shims, we don’t think these are factory shims.

    The strange piece of string inside the head… What could it be for?

    Bottom view of the tool pickup and the 90’o rotation.


    These 4 arms are moved towards the part and clamp it gently, this straightens the part for placement, it can also rotate the part by 90’o ( which sucks for us because i always like to put parts at 45’o)

    The laser, focused lamp (this machine continues to surprise us ) which is used to position the head in teaching mode.

    We’re removing the lamp and replacing it with machine vision, so some measurements are taken.


    The hoses are removed and marked with a letter , the corresponding connector is also marked with the same letter.

    This is how the previous owners repaired the 90’o rotation arms….. so that explains the string. this was removed and repaired correctly. The 90’o does just that, it rotates a part by 90’o that’s all this machine can do, so we’re going to change that to it can do arbitrary rotations.


    This hose had cracked, a few others did too. I found a few temporary replacements at the auto parts store 4mm ID, 8mm OD  fuel priming line.  The plan is to replace all the hose.

    Stripped machine screw in the head. Replace from grainger, M3x8mm 0.4mm thread 5.5mm head size.

    And some missing set screws

    Spent some time measuring all the screws and what not. The machine is old enough that it came from proper manuals with circuit diagrams.

    We’re replacing the IO board, the plan is to throw in a TI Stellaris ARM lm3s9b96 chip instead, (TI were good enough to send us a bunch a while ago, thanks TI!)

    This board is a dumb board, it just marshals the I/O and does the switching of the 24VDC with darlington’s.

    Here we’re removing and verifying the connector sizes and function  (the manual had some errors) so its good to do that. It also gives us good insight into what’s going on.

    Checking how the machine works with my trusty fluke.


    I threw together the connector layout in eagle and printed it out to verify it,  early revision.

    Measure the hole size and distance. Our board is exactly the same size so its a drop in replacement, we’ll just lose the two larger connectors and change it to USB.

    Here we were figuring out how the ATC worked, at first it was though to drive it directly , but there weren’t enough wires. So its 24V, 5V and control signals, the small interface board at the front is a  74LS138 decoder/demultiplexer with a few buffers and more darlington drivers , it switches the 24V on and off based on the 4 control signals coming in.

    Automatic Tool Changer

    The tool wanted is lifted up when the machine wants to change it, on the right are the pneumatic switches that are controlled by a 24V signal.



    We’re using Power MOSFETs to control the 24V instead, a 6 pin ROHM US6K1DKR in a TUMT6 package ( time to create a new device in eagle again !) I ordered 100 from Digikey yesterday and should have the board layout finished today. Then we can mill out a test PCB and see how it works. (parts arrived a few minutes ago!)

    You might be amazed, I was , about just how simple this machine is, you could run the whole thing from a set of on/off switches, albeit very slowly. But that is great for us though as it makes it very easy to replace the PC software.

    The next big thing is going to be testing the new power MOSFET and building the new PCB.  The chips will be here today have arrived.

    So new eagle package

    Cut out a few to test.



    Apparently I goofed on the measurements, I did change it around a tad after the first revision. Teeny part.

    Soldered it anyway


    So the next step is adding cameras etc.


    mmca explaining the new part to be cnc’d out for the camera


    mockup of the mount




    The head has to be recalibrated so the bottom of the tool is 62.5mm from the table, with a .1mm accuracy, so we as usual went overboard and used grade B gauge blocks.

    69.5mm to .00005 inches accurate.


    Gauge blocks are fascinating, they stick together like magnets if you put them together by making surer there is no air between them, but if you just stick them together they won’t. Super flat. these aren’t grade a or better, but they’re nice. mmca has the coolest stuff.


    Starting to rebuild it



    Machine vision tests

    This is work in progress, testing RoboRealm/OpenCV and teaching it components, it works well!


    Using a panda board a HP HD Webcam for testing the vision.



    Playing around with layouts for a quick test tool. two grey areas are for the cameras.


    Well that is it so far, my Motorola Atrix decided that the fingerprint reader would become burning hot to the touch. So I pulled it apart and removed it, but somehow managed to make it do a full hard reset (or a docwho76 as we call it ) and it deleted a bunch of my pictures. google+ had failed to sync them. But we’ll keep documenting the project,

    • Jack Gassett 4:52 pm on September 1, 2011 Permalink | Reply

      Hey, this is great guys! I have the exact same pick and place unit and went through the same pains getting it up and running about a year ago.

      Thought I’d share a couple tips that I learned, you might already know them, or they might help. 🙂

      I was having trouble with the autochanger detecting if a bit was attached. At first I thought it was the reed switch. But it turned out that it was actually the PS4 pressure switch. You can put it into test mode, drop a bit onto the rubber pad by the autochanger and then look for a red LED to light up on the PS4. Adjust the screw on the PS4 to get it just right.

      The other tip is that I don’t even bother with the teaching light anymore. Screaming Circuits has an EAGLE ulp file that generates a centroid file with exact coordinates of your parts. It saves a LOT of time to just print out the centroid file and type the exact coordinates in instead of teaching each component location.

      Hope this helps, and hope you guys have as much fun with your Juki as I have. 🙂


      • charliex 5:06 pm on September 1, 2011 Permalink | Reply

        Hey Jack,

        Yeah i saw you on the zevatech list, seems like its a small world!. We’re completely replacing the PCB and rewriting the software for it. The reed switch was definitely broken, and once repaired and realigned the head, it picks up stuff really nicely now.

        The initial plan was to reverse the save file and put the centroids directly into that, but we decided to go whole hog and just redo all the software.


        • tom 1:24 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          Hi Charlie,

          I just got a 460 machine for my small business and would like to know if this project was completed? Is the software and hardware schematics available?


        • charliex 1:41 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          We completed it (as far as one does with these things), its all available on the NSL 032 SVN http://wiki.032.la/nsl_svn_server in the juki folder

        • tom 2:58 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          Thanks! Can you offer any advice for using your software to control a stock machine with the addition of a camera? The standard 90deg head rotation is suitable for us but would really like the great features of programming your software offers.

        • charliex 3:00 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          it does support a camera for positioning, but depends on if registration vs part placement, i’d like at opencv etc for that. any decent usb camera works we used a pen type off ebay

        • tom 3:13 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          Is it necessary to replace the control board in the machine with the custom board or can the software work with standard hardware? It doesn’t look like the “Juki_PCB” EagleCAD design is routed or complete? I’m trying to figure out how to operate the stock hardware with this program before any vision work. Many thanks for any advice.

        • charliex 3:16 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          juki_shield is all you need, pop it on an arduino mega, the other board is just a mega with laid out at the right side.

          it does not work with the stock computer,, but it just plugs in.

        • tom 3:38 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          Ok, great; I’ve got an arduino mega 2560 on order and the sheild board ordered from osh park. The only other question I have now is what modifications are needed to use the stock head rotation? Thank you so much!

        • charliex 3:54 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          you’re making me think back now. one of the other members cad’d up a head for a little servo motor we had lying around and added that a step dir driver. you can see the details in part 3 of this

        • tom 4:19 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          Yes, I see the stepper motor addition to the head. I may do this in the future, but my question is can I use the shield board as-is to operate the existing head rotation valves? Can the software handle this too? Thank you.

        • charliex 4:26 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          yeah it should be able too, just find a spare IO and add it, since we’re using N degrees of rotation the software wouldn’t match identically

        • tom 7:03 am on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          It looks like the I/O are already mapped and routed for head rotate and center on the shield board fortunately. I didn’t see the use of the centering fingers in the videos. Was this ever accomplished? Thanks

        • charliex 10:04 pm on May 12, 2015 Permalink

          the io for the head would be to step dir the rotation, so it can be re-used if the software is recoded to do the 90o instead, which is fairly trivial.
          the squaring i don’t believe we never used, but that’s just GCODE.

        • tom 12:15 am on May 13, 2015 Permalink

          Thanks for the reply. Was USB interface completed or how is pc to arduino communication handled? I’ll be starting this all next week when the machine arrives and I’m getting the hardware together now.

        • charliex 12:36 am on May 13, 2015 Permalink

          the windows gui talks directly to the atmel chip via the faked serial port, there’s no arduino other than form factor.

        • tom 1:07 am on May 13, 2015 Permalink

          I see; so I should start with the “openpnp>firmware>grbl” project uploaded to the mega and use digital pins 0 and 1 (tx and rx) as a rs-232 com port? Thank you.

        • charliex 1:17 am on May 13, 2015 Permalink

          the mega will do an ftdi serial port to the host via usb.

        • tom 1:34 am on May 13, 2015 Permalink

          Thanks for your help I do appreciate it. My goal is to make it possible to use a stock machine with just removing the old PC hardware and installing the arduino/shield and camera. If I can get it done maybe I can get a few more retrofitted for my shop afterwards to make it more worth while. I’d be glad to share the work when it is done.

        • charliex 1:38 am on May 13, 2015 Permalink

          no worries, hope it works out for you. should be pretty straightforward, just make sure you do a lot of testing without the pickup head installed those things are unobtanium.

        • tom 1:18 pm on May 27, 2015 Permalink

          Hi Charlie,

          I’m digging deeper and found the 460 and 360 controller boards are not the same so I am revising the shield board for the 460. I have a few questions if you would be so kind:

          1. What is the grbl program compiled in? Atmel studio? I’m having trouble getting your code to compile in arduino ide due to “errors.”
          2. I’ve been unable to get the pc software to run; I get errors related to the opencv dll files (‘not valid image’ file.) Maybe I can try to use opencv’s latest version files?
          3. What is the part number for the head rotation servo? What type of driver is used to run it? Did you get a rotary encoder installed and how is that connected?

          Thank you

        • tom 1:24 pm on May 27, 2015 Permalink

          More careful reading reveals grbl built in avr studio and programmed over icsp; I’ll give this a shot!

        • charliex 4:46 pm on May 27, 2015 Permalink

          make sure you’re matching opencv dll versions to windows 32/64 bit. there may have been changes to opencv in the last 3 years that could have broken it. the motor was just one we had lying around, there is no encoder wheel, we either used an off the shelf stepper controller or made one out of an allegro controller.

    • Jack Gassett 8:49 pm on September 1, 2011 Permalink | Reply

      Hey Charlie,

      The thought has crossed my mind to replace the old Z80 computer with a Soft Z80 running on my Papilio FPGA board. 🙂

      The two problems with that are:
      1) The software as it is is not the greatest, seems like a lot of work and you would end up with the same software.
      2) It’s a lot of work that very few people would actually ever use.

      But, I love my local hackerspaces and if you think you can use a Papilio FPGA board I’d be happy to donate one to you guys.

    • charliex 9:04 pm on September 1, 2011 Permalink | Reply

      thanks Jack, I’ve got a few of your fpga boards already, got a few maybe three years ago? when we were all looking at the sump. we’re always happy to take more donations of dev boards though for people. http://wiki.032.la/nsl/Equipment_Inventory

      But we’re actually replacing it with an Stellaris ARM because TI gave us a bunch of free chips and dev boards, if we promised to make something cool. I’m writing the PC control software from scratch too and adding machine vision etc. I’ve got most of the board ready in eagle.

    • truthspew 9:40 pm on September 1, 2011 Permalink | Reply

      Wow, that is far too cool. Taking an old piece of tech and extending it’s usable life by upgrading it’s systems is priceless. I wish you great adventure with the machine!

    • Tim 3:40 pm on September 2, 2011 Permalink | Reply

      Very cool! How are you planning to implement the control software and vision system? I’ve been laying some groundwork for an open-source pick&place design, and the software controller is the next major step. (Right now this consists only of a Python to EMC2 remote interface and a few not-ready-for-primetime opencv experiments, but my freetime will free up again a bit this fall!)

      • charliex 9:53 pm on September 4, 2011 Permalink | Reply

        Longer term plan is to use a custom arm board, but last night we just built and designed a shield for the arduino mega. Vision is opencv currently

        • rfritz 3:44 pm on September 9, 2011 Permalink

          “Shims, we don’t think these are factory shims.” – They ARE factory shims.

          “The strange piece of string inside the head… What could it be for?” – It could be and in fact IS an oil wick. Google JUKI to find out what they made b4 pp machines.

          Contact Marc LeLonge(sp?) [alphatronique.com] on Zevatech list, he completed the ARM controller w/ PC GUI a while back.

          There are also scanned manuals and exploded mechanical dwgs for machine and assy’s.

        • charliex 7:15 pm on September 9, 2011 Permalink

          We found out about the shims being factory last night oddly enough, however the string was there to hold some bits in place. I’ve already chatted to marc, his solution isn’t finished yet and we’re pertty much at the same stage he his, maybe even a little bit beyond it as we’re moving on to the machine vision.

    • rfritz 4:45 am on September 10, 2011 Permalink | Reply

      I have three 460 heads all with “the string”, just like in your photo. Two from Florida and one from Texas. Hmm.

      • charliex 5:34 am on September 10, 2011 Permalink | Reply

        yeah the oil string thing makes sense for the age of the machine, with modern lubricants you shouldn’t need it. our head was in a mess when we got it and had to rebuild it and it was held together with all sorts/ it wasn’t in the manual we could see either.

    • Marc Lalonde 6:19 pm on September 13, 2011 Permalink | Reply


      sorry charlies but my project not a same stage of your
      i have all my machine doing production since august
      and one of it whit vision and servo rotation on head

      Kit i put on ebay was intended to be easy to install and setup so i remove
      servo and vision since i quite hard to setup and expensive since i use cognex vision system
      optic and lighting was not easy task to setup (top and bottom vision)

      as for software issue that have make me crash my machine head it was fixed now
      so now i monitor head cylinder switch and stop all motor in hardware if head was not full up
      old soft version rely on soft but experience show me that if head was stuck down(no air)
      the protection was not good and may let motor move and cause damage

      but i not yet knot if i put back on ebay since commercial grade hardware software make it expensive
      and market was quite limited so seem that i will never recover R&D money i put on solution
      but at last i have all my 5 machine working (3 in production + 2 spare)
      so my project main goal was dome i have machine that operate like i what and take 3 minute to program

      also remeber that make machine move was the easy part , make it easy to operate ,user friendly
      and reliable was more difficult i have ~75k line of code firmware hardware for have it

      Best regard and good luck
      Marc lalonde
      Alphatronique inc.

      • charliex 6:38 pm on September 13, 2011 Permalink | Reply

        We have the head up down detection, it won’t move with the head down, it knows if its homed, it knows the size of the table, it knows if its not moving, it knows if it picked up a tool or not, it knows if it picked up a part or dropped it, it knows if the air supply is probably getting low and waits for the compressor to catch up. It knows if the emergency switch has been pushed and needs to rehome. We’re using half step, the controllers have been updated for newer ones, same for the motors.

        We’ve added all sorts of safety features, some of them weren’t in the original . everything that can be checked is checked. The machine vision is being added too, head rotation is being worked on last night.

        There is nothing fancy about it, its a very simple system it doesn’t take a lot of work to better the zevatech.

        All of this we’ve done in a couple of weeks.

    • Marc Lalonde 10:05 pm on September 13, 2011 Permalink | Reply


      as said before i have no bout about your hardware

      i just curious wly change drive and original stepper ?
      original 5 phase stepper have lot of torque @ hi speed compared to 2 phase stepper
      and still not sure about wly use half step ? original drive do 0.25mm/step
      (zevatech software handel only 0.5mm but it software limitation)
      but i found that resolution limitation not come from motor but from feeder mechanical variation (repetability issue)
      and solder past making part slick since head height and force was only limited by gravity

      Best regard

    • charliex 10:10 pm on September 13, 2011 Permalink | Reply

      Simply because we could and had the parts on hand in the lab. The new controllers also offer more features too, the guy i work with is a cnc magician so he’s the one driving the changes.

      We’re also planning to add more features to the machine, and get down to 0402 (or better) we’re working on our own feeder design.

      • Jose 10:42 pm on March 1, 2012 Permalink | Reply

        Hi Charliex, great work on the 360, I have a JUKI KP460 that also have rebuilt and doing some ggood work now, but I’m VERY interested on upgrading it to camera and GUI interface, eager to replace the 286 PC running it!!!! and the folppy drive, great tip, great work, I’m not a programmer but like to tinker, any info/tips on how to modify my unit servos to OpenPnP great. Also feeders, are you guys thinking to modify the feeders? to smartfeeders? and the tips, when you break were do you get the replacements from? I broke a few that I patched and modified to pick up up to 0603 components.

    • charliex 11:56 pm on March 1, 2012 Permalink | Reply

      As long as its stepdir openpnp will support it.

      We haven’t changed the feeders, just been buying them off ebay when they appear.

      tips we haven’t broken yet, but parts we just scav around from people.

    • Tom Winsemius 4:34 pm on April 24, 2015 Permalink | Reply

      We have a Zevatech 460. Are you still looking for one?

      • charliex 4:59 pm on April 24, 2015 Permalink | Reply

        Hey Tom,
        we’re a volunteer run hackerspace, so only if its a freebie basically.


      • Charles Bynaker 12:41 am on May 26, 2015 Permalink | Reply

        I am interested in a Zevatech 460

        • Tom Winsemius 4:52 pm on May 26, 2015 Permalink

          Sorry, but it has been sold

        • Charles Bynaker 11:49 pm on May 26, 2015 Permalink


  • charliex 2:13 am on August 27, 2009 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 360, , , Millling, , ,   

    AccurateCNC 360 PCB Test 


    Here are the results! I’m pretty happy so far, haven’t studied them in exquisite detail but I’ll be doing that tonight!








Compose new post
Next post/Next comment
Previous post/Previous comment
Show/Hide comments
Go to top
Go to login
Show/Hide help
shift + esc