stick-vise XY table

Finally got around to creating a XY table for the stick vise to use with the eakins digital inspection camera. This is just a quick write up.

The idea is it can scan the larger PCB, and overlay the routes etc.

Here it is, for test fitment I just 3d printed the mounts. I’ll cut them out of metal later.

20200606_191403
20200606_191323
2020-06-06 19_44_11-Linear Rail 50mm _ 100mm _ 150mm_ 200mm Linear Stage Actuator with Square Linear

The https://www.stickvise.com/ adapter

https://a360.co/2AHRemu

Adapter to  connect the two linear rails’ together.

https://a360.co/3h5zYIC

I picked up the rails off eBay/aliexpress but i wanted a longer 150mm so I grabbed another from Amazon, these things are available everywhere

2020-06-06 19_33_46-Autodesk Fusion 360
2020-06-06 19_21_37-Autodesk Fusion 360
2020-06-06 19_21_20-Autodesk Fusion 360

stick vise adapter.

2020-06-06 19_34_38-Autodesk Fusion 360
2020-06-06 19_22_21-Autodesk Fusion 360
2020-06-06 19_22_02-Autodesk Fusion 360

All the bolts are M3 I used are 10mm length.

The nut version

which bolts thru from this side.

I made the countersinks 5mm on the first plate I made ( not pictured), then hot welded an M3 threaded insert into the plastic, on the metal one i’d have just put an M3 nut in there.

To drive it i’m using  the Polulu  Tic’s https://www.pololu.com/category/212/tic-stepper-motor-controllers they don’t seem to have a dual one, or chainable so its two USBs at the moment.

that us more or less it. 3D print or mill the plates, attach the stick vise to the first plate, then the stick vise+plate to the first linear rail, then put the nuts or inserts on the second plates two holes (spaced 20mm ) and then bolt the second plate to the second longer linear rail with four M3 10mms, put the first shorter linear rail on top of the second, and use two M3 10mm bolts to hold it in place.

this is the overlay of the tracks on the pcb, pre XY. so now the plan is to  move the pcb around and have the tracks around.

2020-06-06 19_46_40-Dr Terrible's House of Bloggable – Stuff i posted - Brave

I’ll do a more detailed write up when its up and running in measuretwice. there were some notes in this post

https://charliex2.wordpress.com/2020/01/14/eakins-camera-hackery-pokery-and-the-legend-of-measuretwice/

fibre laser arrives… let the games begin

We picked up a 60W fibre laser after we were looking for some stuff and saw a youtube video on MOPA lasering…

Fast forward to the arrival, it got stuck in customs partly due to FDA, partly due to the time of year, we picked it up from Kelly @ Wuhan Optical which of course has its own drama right after the New Years break with the virus. Which meant even though it’d been  in customs for a while, it was very carefully disinfected with alcohol etc during unpacking.

After setup we fired up the laser and did some tests.

60W MOPA Fibre laser, it is a tasty piece of kit

 image

There is  bunch of stuff to setup in the configs and try to tune it to the coloured metal output. Like this! Amazing stuff.

Pretty neat

Stainless Steel

imageimage

Copper coated plastic or something

Dithered

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No dither

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Stainless steel 0.15mm thick

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Tool Plate

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Welding plate from Lowes, hard to see the colours

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Block of aluminium

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The Setup

Thus follows a bunch of images ( A ) to share with others, (  B ) for us to find later.. .which is half what this blog is.

Make sure you load the correct CAL file  for the lense you are using, if you start EzCad2 and it says “Can’t find file” or such, it is likely missing the CAL file. Which you set the location of the in the Param(F3) menu

Settings for the actual engrave/cut.

Ok back to the blog.

The Chinese software is less than great…

Here we are again, most Chinese software actually does most of what you need, it is very focused on you can do it if you do enough fiddling around, and workarounds for 90% of the stuff it’ll cover, the make it work, and stopping before the make it great practice of software dev. But given the razor thin margins and other such things , who would be shocked ? China is really good at what they do, but it is very specific.

The first thing i notice about the software is the key (F1) to display the red safe for eyes laser to show the box or contour of the thing you’re about to lase , is right next to the KEY (F2) that actually fires the laser which is not safe for eyes… so that is a terrible design choice. so watch out for that. In China they don’t even use the protective glasses (not that the supplied ones are great, get some thorlabs ones), so they’re not worried about this issue I would imagine.

Since you can use the foot pedal to start the laser running, why not just disable F2 altogether ? I’ve already accidentally fired the laser once, but I swear I hit apply and not FIRE LASERS !!!

Motor Driver 12,800 steps setup on ours

http://www.sah.co.rs/media/sah/techdocs/dm542_manual.pdf

60w Fibre Laser data sheet

https://cdn.specpick.com/images/photonics/products/RFL-P60M.pdf

The author(me) gets distracted during this write up.

Good question, Hmmm, ok why not, I’ll pause this text typing and go and look for it..(literally just happened)

Taking a look at EzCad2.exe imports I see lots of uses of

GetKeyState

That would be for checking the state of virtual keys, and VK_F2 is 0x71.. 0x70 is F1, is that it?  Virtual Key Codes

I see, 0x10(VK_SHIFT), 17(VK_CONTROL) 164 (VK_LMENU) and 165 (VK_RMENU)

It’s looking for key modifiers which is a typical use of GetKeyState, most likely i’d look for the WinProc and see the key down/up events but we’re in MFC so it’ll likely be a handler via DDX , PreTranslateMessage, Accelerators CWnd func, etc.

Poking around to see if it is obvious which is used while running the app. I run it inside the debugger but not connected to the Laser, ahh, the keys are disabled since I have no control board connected, very sensible but less than ideal for what we’re doing here.

Looks like the standard way to enable/disable controls in MFC based on a call to the LMC Driver setup.

We can see that the dialog ID for the red laser is 17023/0x427f using Spy++

image

There are a few PostMessageW’s to that ID , both id 0x111 ( WM_COMMAND) with the dialog ID and 0 so menu. Seems like a thing. Which leads us to this :-

if ( wParam == 113 )

and

if ( wParam == 112)

113 and 112 are the virtual keys for F2 and F1 respectively. They each post a message to the dialog ID’s 17023 and 1321 so if this is the right spot looking at the ID for the Mark(F2) button would equal 1321

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0x529 = 1321, so confirmed.

There are two places it checks that VK_ and they both call  PostMessageW(hwnd, WM_COMMAND, dialogID , 0 );

Here is one location

0x04FF7DD 83 7D 0C 70                             cmp     [ebp+wParam], 0x70

0x04FF808 83 7D 0C 71                             cmp     [ebp+wParam], 0x71

Changing those should change the key, if you need to update the GUI change LANG=lang_Enu.ini

For F2

BTNMARK=Mark(F2)
CONTMARKALLPART=F2 Continuous mark all

For F1

BTNLIGHT=Red(F1)
MARKALLPART=F1 Mark all part

Also a couple of NOPs here and there will disable the key altogether! Note there are two sets of this code, this is just one.

0x04FF7DD 83 7D 0C 70                             cmp     [ebp+wParam], 0x70 ; VK_ Code
0x04FF7E1 75 25                                   jnz     short loc_0x4FF808

0x04FF7E3 6A 00                                   push    0x0              ; lParam
0x04FF7E5 68 7F 42 00 00                          push    0x427F           ; wParam
0x04FF7EA 68 11 01 00 00                          push    0x111            ; Msg
0x04FF7EF 8B 0D 44 AC 5B 00                       mov     ecx, dword_0x5BAC44
0x04FF7F5 E8 86 F2 F0 FF                          call    GetHwnd
0x04FF7FA 50                                      push    eax             ; hWnd
0x04FF7FB FF 15 5C 1A 56 00                       call    ds:PostMessageW
0x04FF801 33 C0                                   xor     eax, eax
0x04FF803 E9 E4 02 00 00                          jmp     loc_0x4FFAEC
0x04FF808

loc_0x4FF808:

0x04FF808 83 7D 0C 71                             cmp     [ebp+wParam], 0x71 ; VK Code
0x04FF80C 75 25                                   jnz     short loc_0x4FF833
0x04FF80E 6A 00                                   push    0x0              ; lParam
0x04FF810 68 29 05 00 00                          push    0x529            ; wParam
0x04FF815 68 11 01 00 00                          push    0x111            ; Msg
0x04FF81A 8B 0D 44 AC 5B 00                       mov     ecx, dword_0x5BAC44
0x04FF820 E8 5B F2 F0 FF                          call    GetHwnd
0x04FF825 50                                      push    eax            ; hWnd
0x04FF826 FF 15 5C 1A 56 00                       call    ds:PostMessageW

Saturday morning, I  ended up writing a little app to patch the EXE and change the keys, it searches for the code sequences for the VK’s which there are two of each, so I search for three, and if it only finds two sets, adjusts the location and changes the VK code then write outs a new EXE. I added the F keys and SPACE .. Don’t use a key thats already in use! Edit the lang\lang_enu.ini for english text to change the EzCad2 GUI to match the new keys.

Warning: You should never actually use this any of this information in this post, this linked app or even test it, as it may do something bad and unexpected to everything, and anything, damage you, damage the laser, the planet, etc. Its purely for informational purposes only.

https://github.com/charlie-x/fibrelasertools 

I tried this app on the actual laser, it works but there is another place where F2 is getting used so have to find that one too. I set the red mark to VK_SPACE and then use the footswitch to fire the laser, that way you dont need to tap F1 or F2, i’ll find the others.

OK we’ve gone on a journey, now we’re back to writing up the rest.

So why are we doing this

Apart from the obvious, because we can, the host software isn’t great, why not, and the other reasons

We want to make stainless steel stencils for PCB, so i try an export of the DXF directly from Eagle, the gerber tCream and various modified versions via Illustrator , using type 3 .ai files. Unfortunately the geom doesn’t close properly the stating position and ending position of everything is off so it leaves a little tab behind, drawing it in ezcad works properly its only on the dxf/gerber/ai import this happens, the geo is contiguous and closed so its something else.

Looks good, except for the one corner that isn’t cut out!

image

After fiddling around I poke around at the software, we’ve already updated EzCad  from the version supplied. I’d like to be able to drive the laser directly so investigations begin.

Various notes i’ve found about the process

DXF import failed for R12 DXF’s AC1009 (eagle spits these out) loading in AI and exporting as DFX 2004 AC1018 worked.

Straight from Eagle R12 to EzCad2

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Load into AI and export as 2004

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R12 as viewed in AI

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Now in EzCad2 as a 2004 DXF

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Gerber import from eagle works, but pads end up as circles unless you add any rounded corner to the pads of your devices.

tCream as viewed in Eagle

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tCream gerber as viewed in EzCad

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The rectangular pads appear as circles, but rounded pads appear correctly. The workaround I found for this is tedious but worked

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Edit the package, then the PAD properties and set roundness to something more than 0 then update the board, and re-export the gerber.

Laser fails to cut corners of shapes

This one is partly why I started this, we had a false test that allowed us to cut rectangles clearly but I think the settings changed between the working cut and then our stencil tests, basically one small tab at the end of the laser operation would be left behind.

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At first since we could cut proper rectangles and only imported geo seemed to not work,  it seem like it was an import issue. But revisiting we decided to change some of the parameters

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Start TC is the time to delay before cutting, it gives time for the system to catch up, –200 was the recommend value. Changing this to –400 pretty much cleared up the issue, but also increasing Laser Off TC  and Polygon TC to 300 helped as well Polygon TC is the dwell time when it finishes cutting one part of the line in the polygon, Laser off is how long the laser stays on at the end of the cutting operation. Increasing these too much will cause a larger burn area on corners or end of cut so you have to tune it.

Cutting 0.127mm stainless steel our settings currently are

image

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For stencil material it is a little thinner at .011mm and we were able to cut that at Loop 30 , Power 55%

We fiddled with the Frequency(Khz) to get a smooth cut, this changes the amount of power at the cut too and it varies on the waveform, doesn’t just increase with frequency. The lowest setting for our cutter is 20 KHz which makes seperate distinctive dots. 50 KHz was the default and it wasn’t quite as smooth an edge so 75 worked. Q we’re keeping to be as close to a non MOPA fibre as possible.

The effects of the Frequency being too low, reduced power to see the effect

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Tried hatching and engraving tests as well, melted, and reformed steel. Commerical stencil cutters are likely a moving head with air assist.

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Cross hatch with a run around the edge.

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EzCad can be infuriating

One of the annoyances for me is the pen selection, it took me a few tries to figure out if you have anything selected on the work area, you can’t choose a new pen on the right side, so pressing ESC or de-selecting any objects in the workspace fixes that. It takes fovever to setup your default pens, which are stored in the .ezd file too.

Deep Diving

Breaking down the .EZD format

Taking a look at the binary EZD format to see if we can get some insight on how to write custom ones.

First i loaded EzCad and just saved the empty workspace, this generates a 317KBfile. All the pens are in there.

The first thing tried is switching off Default param and resaving, them comparing

Looks good, a 00 to a 01, right side is default param on.

L27320    04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 40 7F 40 08 00 00 00  …………………….@@….
R27320    04 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 40 7F 40 08 00 00 00  …………………….@@….

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This seems promising, Unicode string, in blocks are there 256 of them?

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[C:\ezcad\tests]strings -u default-param-off-empty.ezd >f

Strings v2.53 – Search for ANSI and Unicode strings in binary images.
Copyright (C) 1999-2016 Mark Russinovich
Sysinternals – http://www.sysinternals.com

[C:\ezcad\tests]wc f

f:                   Words: 257        Lines: 257        Chars: 1800

hmm 257?, a quick peek at the file F tells us why, the first string is EZCADUNI which is part of the header. so yep its 256 pens as expected.

EZCADUNI
Default
Default
Default

There is a header too

image

Which is followed by a whole bunch of 00 FF FF FF, a

image

Lets see if the location of the Pens section is fixed, or if it moves around and theres a section pointer or something, i’ll add a rectangle to the file and see what changes.

That causes quite a large change in the file. But its encouraging because what happened was it overwrote some info at the start of the file, some of the ff ff ff 00 changed, the pens seemed to stay in the same place and a whole chunk of stuff was added to the end of the file.

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Lets change one of the pen settings now. I set Loop from1 to 2

—————————————————–
L27320    04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 02 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 40 7F 40 08 00 00 00  …………………….@@….
R27320    04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 40 7F 40 08 00 00 00  …………………….@@….

Which is in the default section

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I’ll add some more shapes to the file and see if the pens move.

Another large change in that first section with the FF FF FF 00 and this time a smaller amount of data, i added a circle at 0,0 and 10mm

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Pens didn’t move though. Lets change another parameter in the pen. I changed speed from 500 to 501

—————————————————–
R27320    04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 02 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 40 7F 40 08 00 00 00  …………………….@@….

L27320    04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 02 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 50 7F 40 08 00 00 00  …………………….P@….

Speed 502

—————————————————–
L27320    04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 02 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 50 7F 40 08 00 00 00  …………………….P@….
R27320    04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 02 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 60 7F 40 08 00 00 00  …………………….`@….

Speed 1000, from 502

Changing Power from 100 to 1

—————————————————–
L27340    00 00 00 00 00 00 F0 3F 04 00 00 00 20 4E 00 00 04 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 2C 01 00 00  ……ð?…. N…………..,…
R27340    00 00 00 00 00 00 59 40 04 00 00 00 20 4E 00 00 04 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 2C 01 00 00  ……Y@…. N…………..,…

So its a mix of ints and doubles.

0x27300 R value byte
0x27301 G value byte
0x27302 G value byte
0x27304 Length of Unicode string int. 4 bytes,
0x27308 Unicode Default 440065006600610075006C0074000000

This moves depending on length of the parameter name, so these are absolute with a unicode string length of 0x10 from base to consider

0x27324 Use default parameter  uint8
0x2732c for Loop (range seems 1 to 10,000)  4 bytes int
0x27334 for Speed(MM) its stored as a double 8 bytes.
0x27340 for Power% double
0x2734c for Frequency(Khz) Int32 4 bytes, max 10,000

Checking Q but its +4 i think and uint32

0x2735c for Start TC Int32 4 bytes signed
0x273e4 for Laser Off TC(US) uint32 4 bytes, max 10,000
0x27364 for End TC(US) uint32 4 bytes, max 10,000
0x2736C for Polygon TC(US) uint32 4 bytes, max 10,000

Enough to start a simple application to edit these valus, firing up MSVC.

Few hours later !

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I’m using default values for testing, so they don’t necessarily make sense yet. Added import and export of CSV so you can edit in text or a spreadsheet, or even share on google sheets etc. has Q since ours is a MOPA.

I found some test grids on web that seem to be an older verison of ezCad and there is an  offset difference, which i figured there would be since its such a large offset into the file.

Loading and resaving the EZD in the version of EZCad 2.14.11 i used while testing moved it to the same offset. 0x27300 for mine, 0x464 for the one i found on the web, here’s the header. Since you can load and resave it and it appears at the same offset i’m not super worried but it’d be nice to decode how it knows where it is, assuming there is some relative offset.

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EZD writing and CSV Export working

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It is feature complete now and i put it on my github for testing, it is very specific to the version of EzCad so i’ve only tested 2.14.11

https://github.com/charlie-x/fibrelasertools

I think i figured out how the pen offset works , offset 0x160 has a uint32_t that gets to the base of the pens – 0x10, tested a few versions of .ezd files and it worked ok, github updated again.

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Into the Driver

EzCad2 comes with its own driver board the LMC1/4fiber etc which work over USB and also double a as dongle, which means you can’t use EzCad2 offline as it can’t save. A quick 30 second poke with a hex editor fixed that though just so I could use it on my main PC for testing and it takes FOREVER to build the arrays to test different power and frequency levels

LMC1.dll LMCMIO.dll are the main files for talking to the board, there is an MarkEz.dll available that you can use to interface with the laser, but it is really high level and  might be a paid option ?

I converted the header to English.

#ifndef MARKEZDDLL_H
#define MARKEZDDLL_H

// All functions return an integer value
#define LMC1_ERR_SUCCESS 0 // Success
#define LMC1_ERR_EZCADRUN 1 // Found that EZCAD is running
#define LMC1_ERR_NOFINDCFGFILE 2 // Cannot find EZCAD.CFG
#define LMC1_ERR_FAILEDOPEN 3 // Failed to open LMC1
#define LMC1_ERR_NODEVICE 4 // No valid lmc1 device
#define LMC1_ERR_HARDVER 5 // lmc1 version error
#define LMC1_ERR_DEVCFG 6 // Cannot find the device configuration file
#define LMC1_ERR_STOPSIGNAL 7 // Alarm signal
#define LMC1_ERR_USERSTOP 8 // User stops
#define LMC1_ERR_UNKNOW 9 // Unknown error
#define LMC1_ERR_OUTTIME 10 // Timeout
#define LMC1_ERR_NOINITIAL 11 // Not initialized
#define LMC1_ERR_READFILE 12 // Error reading file
#define LMC1_ERR_OWENWNDNULL 13 // The window is empty
#define LMC1_ERR_NOFINDFONT 14 // Cannot find the font with the specified name
#define LMC1_ERR_PENNO 15 // Wrong pen number
#define LMC1_ERR_NOTTEXT 16 // The object with the specified name is not a text object
#define LMC1_ERR_SAVEFILE 17 // Failed to save the file
#define LMC1_ERR_NOFINDENT 18 // The specified object cannot be found
#define LMC1_ERR_STATUE 19 // This operation cannot be performed in the current state

// Initialize the lmc1 control card
// input parameter: strEzCadPath EzCad software execution path
// bTestMode = TRUE means test mode bTestMode = FALSE means normal mode
// pOwenWnd represents the parent window object. If stop marking is required, the system will intercept messages from this window.

typedef int ( *LMC1_INITIAL ) ( wchar_t* strEzCadPath, //ezcad’s working directory
                                BOOL bTestMode, // Whether it is a test mode
                                 HWND hOwenWnd ); // The parent window

// Close the lmc1 control card

typedef int ( *LMC1_CLOSE ) ();

typedef int  ( *LMC1_STOPMARK ) ();

// Load the ezd file and clear all objects in the database
// Input parameters: strFileName EzCad file name
typedef int ( *LMC1_LOADEZDFILE ) ( wchar_t* strFileName );

// Mark all data in the current database
// Input parameters: bFlyMark = TRUE enables flying marking bFlyMark = FALSE enables flying marking
typedef int ( *LMC1_MARK ) ( BOOL bFlyMark );

// Mark the specified object in the current database
// input parameter: strEntName the name of the specified object to be processed
typedef int ( *LMC1_MARKENTITY ) ( wchar_t* strEntName );

// Fly mark the specified object in the current database
// input parameter: strEntName
typedef int ( *LMC1_MARKENTITYFLY ) ( wchar_t* strEntName );

// read the input port of lmc1
// input parameter: data of input port read in
typedef int ( *LMC1_READPORT ) ( WORD& data );

// Write the output port of lmc1
// input parameter: the data of the output port to write to
typedef int ( *LMC1_WRITEPORT ) ( WORD data );

// Get a preview image of all data in the current database
// input parameter: pWnd to which window the preview image is displayed
// nBMPWIDTH preview image width
// nBMPHEIGHT height of preview image
typedef  CBitmap* ( *LMC1_GETPREVBITMAP ) ( HWND hwnd, int nBMPWIDTH, int nBMPHEIGHT );


// Call the dialog for setting device parameters
typedef int ( *LMC1_SETDEVCFG ) ();

const int HATCHATTRIB_ALLCALC = 0x01;// All objects are calculated together as a whole
const int HATCHATTRIB_BIDIR   = 0x08;// Bidirectional padding
const int HATCHATTRIB_EDGE    = 0x02;// Walk once
const int HATCHATTRIB_LOOP    = 0x10;// Ring fill

// Set the current filling parameters. If you want to enable filling when adding a new object to the database, this parameter will be used
typedef int ( *LMC1_SETHATCHPARAM ) ( BOOL bEnableContour, // Enable the contour itself
                                       int bEnableHatch1, // Enable fill 1
                                       int nPenNo1, // fill pen
                                       int nHatchAttrib1, // fill attribute
                                       double dHatchEdgeDist1, // fill line margins
                                      double dHatchLineDist1, // fill line spacing
                                       double dHatchStartOffset1, // The starting offset distance of the fill line
                                      double dHatchEndOffset1, // The end offset distance of the fill line
                                       double dHatchAngle1, // fill line angle (radian value)
                                      int bEnableHatch2, // Enable padding 1
                                       int nPenNo2, // fill pen
                                       int nHatchAttrib2, // fill attribute
                                       double dHatchEdgeDist2, // fill line margins
                                      double dHatchLineDist2, // fill line spacing
                                      double dHatchStartOffset2, // The starting offset distance of the fill line
                                      double dHatchEndOffset2, // The end offset distance of the fill line
                                       double dHatchAngle2 ); // fill line angle (radian value)

// Set the current font parameters. If you want to add a new text object to the database, this font parameter will be used.
typedef int ( *LMC1_SETFONTPARAM ) ( wchar_t * strFontName, // font name
                                     double dCharHeight, // character height
                                      double dCharWidth, // character width
                                      double dCharAngle, // character inclination
                                     double dCharSpace, // character spacing
                                     double dLineSpace, // line spacing
                                     BOOL bEqualCharWidth ); // etc. Character width mode

// Get the processing parameters corresponding to the specified pen number
typedef int ( *LMC1_GETPENPARAM ) ( int nPenNo, // the pen number to be set (0-255)
                                    int & nMarkLoop, // processing times
                                    double & dMarkSpeed, // Marking times mm / s
                                     double & dPowerRatio, // power percentage (0-100%)
                                    double & dCurrent, // Current A
                                    int & nFreq, // frequency HZ
                                    int & nQPulseWidth, // Q pulse width us
                                    int & nStartTC, // start delay us
                                    int & nLaserOffTC, // Laser off delay us
                                     int & nEndTC, // end delay us
                                     int & nPolyTC, // corner delay us //
                                     double & dJumpSpeed, // jump speed mm / s
                                     int & nJumpPosTC, // Jump position delay us
                                    int & nJumpDistTC, // Jump distance delay us
                                     double & dEndComp, // end point compensation mm
                                     double & dAccDist, // Acceleration distance mm
                                    double & dPointTime, // dot delay ms
                                    BOOL & bPulsePointMode, // Pulse point mode
                                     int & nPulseNum, // Number of pulse points
                                     double & dFlySpeed );

// Set the processing parameters corresponding to the specified pen number
typedef int ( *LMC1_SETPENPARAM ) ( int nPenNo, // the pen number to be set (0-255)
                                    int nMarkLoop, // processing times
                                    double dMarkSpeed, // Marking times mm / s
                                    double dPowerRatio, // power percentage (0-100%)
                                     double dCurrent, // Current A
                                     int nFreq, // frequency HZ
                                     int nQPulseWidth, // Q pulse width us
                                     int nStartTC, // start delay us
                                    int nLaserOffTC, // Laser off delay us
                                    int nEndTC, // end delay us
                                    int nPolyTC, // corner delay us //
                                    double dJumpSpeed, // jump speed mm / s
                                     int nJumpPosTC, // Jump position delay us
                                     int nJumpDistTC, // jump distance delay us
                                     double dEndComp, // end point compensation mm
                                    double dAccDist, // Acceleration distance mm
                                     double dPointTime, // dot delay ms
                                     BOOL bPulsePointMode, // Pulse point mode
                                     int nPulseNum,
                                     double dFlySpeed ); // Number of pulse points

// Clear all data in the object library
typedef int ( *LMC1_CLEARENTLIB ) ();

// The meaning of the numbers in the alignment
//   6 —  5 — 4
//   |            |
//   |            |
//   7     8      3
//   |            |
//   |            |
//   0 —  1 — 2

// Add new text to the database
typedef int ( *LMC1_ADDTEXTTOLIB ) ( wchar_t * pStr, // string to add
                                      wchar_t * pEntName, // String object name
                                      double dPosX, // x coordinate of the bottom left corner of the string
                                      double dPosY, // the y-coordinate of the bottom left corner of the string
                                     double dPosZ, // the z coordinate of the string object
                                      int nAlign, // alignment mode 0-8
                                      double dTextRotateAngle, // Angle value (radian value) of the string rotation around the base point
                                      int nPenNo, // processing parameters used by the object
                                     BOOL bHatchText ); // Whether to fill the text object

// Add the specified file to the database
// Supported files are ezd, dxf, dst, plt, ai, bmp, jpg, tga, png, gif, tiff, etc.
typedef int ( *LMC1_ADDFILETOLIB ) ( wchar_t * pFileName, // file name
                                      wchar_t * pEntName, // String object name
                                     double dPosX, // The x coordinate of the base left corner of the file
                                      double dPosY, // y-coordinate of the base point of the bottom left corner of the file
                                      double dPosZ, // z-coordinate of the file
                                      int nAlign, // alignment mode 0-8
                                     double dRatio, // File scaling
                                     int nPenNo, // processing parameters used by the object
                                      BOOL bHatchFile ); // Whether the file object is filled. This parameter is invalid if it is an ezd file or a bitmap file.


// Add the curve to the database
typedef int ( *LMC1_ADDCURVETOLIB ) ( double ptBuf[][2], // curve vertex array
                                       int ptNum, // number of curve vertices
                                      wchar_t * pEntName, // curve object name
                                      int nPenNo, // Pen number used by the curve object
                                       int bHatch ); // whether the curve is filled


#define BARCODETYPE_39 0
#define BARCODETYPE_93 1
#define BARCODETYPE_128A 2
#define BARCODETYPE_128B 3
#define BARCODETYPE_128C 4
#define BARCODETYPE_128OPT 5
#define BARCODETYPE_EAN128A 6
#define BARCODETYPE_EAN128B 7
#define BARCODETYPE_EAN128C 8
#define BARCODETYPE_EAN13 9
#define BARCODETYPE_EAN8 10
#define BARCODETYPE_UPCA 11
#define BARCODETYPE_UPCE 12
#define BARCODETYPE_25 13
#define BARCODETYPE_INTER25 14
#define BARCODETYPE_CODABAR 15
#define BARCODETYPE_PDF417 16
#define BARCODETYPE_DATAMTX 17
#define BARCODETYPE_USERDEF 18

#define BARCODEATTRIB_REVERSE 0x0008 // Barcode reverse
#define BARCODEATTRIB_HUMANREAD 0x1000 // Display human recognition characters
#define BARCODEATTRIB_CHECKNUM 0x0004 // A check code is required
#define BARCODEATTRIB_PDF417_SHORTMODE 0x0040 // PDF417 is shortened mode
#define BARCODEATTRIB_DATAMTX_DOTMODE 0x0080 // DataMtrix is ​​in dot mode
#define BARCODEATTRIB_CIRCLEMODE 0x0100 // Customize QR code to circle mode


#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_SMALLEST 0
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_10X10 1
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_12X12 2
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_14X14 3
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_16X16 4
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_18X18 5
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_20X20 6
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_22X22 7
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_24X24 8
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_26X26 9
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_32X32 10
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_36X36 11
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_40X40 12
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_44X44 13
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_48X48 14
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_52X52 15
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_64X64 16
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_72X72 17
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_80X80 18
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_88X88 19
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_96X96 20
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_104X104 21
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_120X120 22
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_132X132 23
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_144X144 24
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_8X18 25
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_8X32 26
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_12X26 27
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_12X36 28
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_16X36 29
#define DATAMTX_SIZEMODE_16X48 30

// Add barcode to database
typedef int ( *LMC1_ADDBARCODETOLIB ) ( wchar_t * pStr, // string
                                        wchar_t * pEntName, // String object name
                                        double dPosX, // The x coordinate of the base left corner of the character
                                        double dPosY, // Y-coordinate of the base left corner of the character
                                         double dPosZ, // character z coordinate
                                        int nAlign, // alignment mode 0-8
                                        int nPenNo,
                                        int bHatchText,
                                         int nBarcodeType, // Barcode type
                                        WORD wBarCodeAttrib, // Barcode attribute
                                        double dHeight, // the height of the entire barcode
                                         double dNarrowWidth, // the narrowest module width
                                        double dBarWidthScale[4], // bar width ratio (compared to the narrowest module width)
                                        double dSpaceWidthScale[4], // space width ratio (compared to the narrowest module width)
                                        double dMidCharSpaceScale, // character space ratio (compared to the narrowest module width)
                                        double dQuietLeftScale, // the left margin width ratio of the barcode (compared to the narrowest module width)
                                         double dQuietMidScale, // ratio of blank width in barcode (compared to the narrowest module width)
                                         double dQuietRightScale, // the right margin width ratio of the barcode (compared to the narrowest module width)
                                        double dQuietTopScale, // ratio of blank width on barcode (compared to the narrowest module width)
                                        double dQuietBottomScale, // ratio of blank width under barcode (compared to the narrowest module width)
                                         int nRow, // Number of QR code lines
                                         int nCol, // Number of QR code columns
                                        int nSizeMode, // DataMatrix size mode 0-30
                                         double dTextHeight, // Font height
                                         double dTextWidth, // Font width
                                         double dTextOffsetX, // X direction offset of human recognition characters
                                         double dTextOffsetY, // Y-direction offset of human recognition characters
                                        double dTextSpace, // Person recognition character spacing
                                         double dDiameter,
                                         wchar_t * pTextFontName ); // Text font name

// Change the text of the specified text object in the current database
// input parameter: strTextName the name of the text object whose content you want to change
// strTextNew new text content
typedef int ( *LMC1_CHANGETEXTBYNAME ) ( wchar_t * strTextName, wchar_t * strTextNew );


// Set the rotation transformation parameters
// Input parameters: dCenterX x coordinate of rotation center
// dCenterY y coordinate of rotation center
// dRotateAng rotation angle (radian value)
typedef void ( *LMC1_SETROTATEPARAM ) ( double dCenterX, double dCenterY, double dRotateAng );


//////////////////////////////////////// /////////////// //////////////////
// Extended axis function

// The extension axis moves to the specified coordinate position
// input parameter: axis extended axis 0 = axis 0 1 = axis 1
// GoalPos coordinate position
typedef int ( *LMC1_AXISMOVETO ) ( int axis, double GoalPos );

// Expansion axis correction origin
// input parameter: axis extended axis 0 = axis 0 1 = axis 1
typedef int ( *LMC1_AXISCORRECTORIGIN ) ( int axis );

// Get the current coordinates of the extended axis
// input parameter: axis extended axis 0 = axis 0 1 = axis 1
typedef double ( *LMC1_GETAXISCOOR ) ( int axis );

// The extension axis moves to the specified pulse coordinate position
// input parameter: axis extended axis 0 = axis 0 1 = axis 1
// nGoalPos pulse coordinate position
typedef int ( *LMC1_AXISMOVETOPULSE ) ( int axis, int nGoalPos );

// Get the current pulse coordinates of the extended axis
// input parameter: axis extended axis 0 = axis 0 1 = axis 1
typedef int ( *LMC1_GETAXISCOORPULSE ) ( int axis );


// Reset extended axis coordinates
// Input parameters: bEnAxis0 = enable axis 0 bEnAxis1 = enable axis 1
typedef double ( *LMC1_RESET ) ( BOOL bEnAxis0, BOOL bEnAxis1 );


// Font type attribute definition
#define FONTATB_JSF 0x0001 // JczSingle font
#define FONTATB_TTF 0x0002 // TrueType font
#define FONTATB_DMF 0x0004 // DotMatrix font
#define FONTATB_BCF 0x0008 // BarCode font

// Font record
struct lmc1_FontRecord {
    wchar_t szFontName[256]; // font name
    DWORD dwFontAttrib; // font attribute
};

// Get all font parameters supported by the current system
// Input parameters: None
// Output parameter: nFontNum font number
// Return parameter: lmc1_FontRecord * array of font records
typedef lmc1_FontRecord * ( *LMC1_GETALLFONTRECORD ) ( int & nFontNum );

// Save all objects in the current database to the specified ezd file
// Input parameters: strFileName ezd file name
typedef int ( *LMC1_SAVEENTLIBTOFILE ) ( wchar_t * strFileName );

// Get the maximum and minimum coordinates of the specified object.
typedef int ( *LMC1_GETENTSIZE ) ( wchar_t * pEntName, // String object name
                                    double & dMinx,
                                   double & dMiny,
                                   double & dMaxx,
                                   double & dMaxy,
                                    double & dZ );

// Move the relative coordinates of the specified object
typedef int ( *LMC1_MOVEENT ) ( wchar_t * pEntName, // String object name
                                 double dMovex,
                                double dMovey );


// Scale the specified object, zoom center coordinates (dCenx, dCeny)
typedef int ( *LMC1_SCALEENT ) ( wchar_t * pEntName, // String object name
                                 double dCenx,
                                 double dCeny,
                                  double dScaleX,
                                  double dScaleY );
// Mirror specified object, mirror center coordinates (dCenx, dCeny) bMirrorX = TRUE X direction mirror bMirrorY = TRUE Y direction
typedef int ( *LMC1_MIRRORENT ) ( wchar_t * pEntName, // String object name
                                   double dCenx,
                                  double dCeny,
                                  BOOL bMirrorX,
                                   BOOL bMirrorY );

// Rotate the specified object, and rotate the center coordinates (dCenx, dCeny)
typedef int ( *LMC1_ROTATEENT ) ( wchar_t * pEntName, // String object name
                                  double dCenx,
                                   double dCeny,
                                   double dAngle );
// Rotate the specified object, the coordinates of the rotation center (dCenx, dCeny) dAngle = rotation angle (positive counterclockwise, the unit is degree)
typedef int ( *LMC1_SETROTATEMOVEPARAM ) ( double dMoveX, // X displacement distance
        double dMoveY, // Y displacement distance
        double dCenterX, // X-coordinate of rotation center
        double dCenterY, // Y-coordinate of rotation center
         double dAngle ); // rotation angle
typedef int ( *LMC1_REDLIGHTMARK ) (); // Mark the red light frame

typedef int ( *LMC1_MARKLINE ) ( double x1,
                                 double y1,
                                 double x2,
                                  double y2,
                                 int pen ); //

typedef int ( *LMC1_MAKEPOINT ) ( double x,
                                   double y,
                                   double delay,
                                  int pen ); //
// Get the total number of objects
// output parameter: total number of objects
typedef int ( *LMC1_GETENTITYCOUNT ) ();

// Get the name of the object with the specified sequence number
// Input parameters: nEntityIndex The number of the specified object (circle: 0-(lmc1_GetEntityCount ()-1))
// output parameter: name of szEntName object
typedef int ( *LMC1_GETENTITYNAME ) ( int nEntityIndex, wchar_t szEntName[256] );

// Get the dog’s customer ID number
typedef WORD ( *LMC1_GETCLIENTID ) ();

typedef int ( *LMC1_GETCURCOOR ) ( double & x,
                                    double & y ); //


typedef int ( *LMC1_GOTOPOS ) ( double x, double y );
// Get the text of the specified object
typedef int ( *LMC1_GETTEXTBYNAME ) ( wchar_t * strTextName, wchar_t strText[256] );


#endif

It’s a good start but it is very tied to the version of EzCad we’re trying to see what the cost of the SDK is, it also seems like the LMC board has a lockout for the SDK mode that has to be unlocked by the EzCad folks, so a bit of a dead end.

Using the DLL is the usual LoadLibrary with GetProcAddress setup.

m_lmc1_LoadEzdFile ( ( LPTSTR ) ( “test.ezd”) );

etc…. Well it’d be nice to get yet more control.

Next lets look at the LMCMIO.dll, after extracting the exports with dumpbin /exports and and then undec to demangle the c++ names.

#ifndef _LMCMIO_H_
#define _LMCMIO_H_ (1)

// charliex
#define API __cdecl

#define tagR struct tagResult

tagR API MIO_AxisGoOrigin(unsigned char device,unsigned short,int,class CWnd *cWnd);

void API MIO_Close(int);
  void API MIO_Close(void);

tagR API MIO_Cmd(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_DisableLaser(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_ENABLEZ(unsigned char device,int);

int API MIO_EarseEpprom(unsigned char device);
  int API MIO_EleExecute(unsigned char device,char *,void *,unsigned long,void *,unsigned long,unsigned long &);

tagR API MIO_EnableLaser(unsigned char device);

int API MIO_EppromGetMark(unsigned char device,unsigned char * const);
  int API MIO_EppromSetMark(unsigned char device,unsigned char * const);
  int API MIO_EppromSetTimeStamp(unsigned char device);

tagR API MIO_ExecuteList(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_GetAxisPos(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  struct _GUID API MIO_GetClassGUID(void);

void * API MIO_GetDevHandle(int);

tagR API MIO_GetFlyWaitCount(unsigned char device,int,long &);
  tagR API MIO_GetListStatus(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_GetLmcInfo(unsigned short * const);

int API MIO_GetLmcPartNo(unsigned char device,unsigned short &,unsigned short &);

tagR API MIO_GetMarkCount(unsigned char device,int,long &);
  tagR API MIO_GetPositionXY(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_GetSerialNo(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_GetState(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_GetVersion(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_GotoXY(unsigned char device,unsigned short x,unsigned short y);
  tagR API MIO_IPG_GetStMO_AP(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_IPG_OpenMO(unsigned char device,int);
tagR API MIO_LaserSignalOff(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_LaserSignalOn(unsigned char device);

int API MIO_ModifyEpprom(unsigned char device);

tagR API MIO_MoveAxisTo(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned long,class CWnd *cwnd);
  tagR API MIO_NewCmd(unsigned char device,unsigned short *,unsigned long);

int API MIO_NxpGetDevelopNum(unsigned char device,void *,unsigned long);
  int API MIO_Open(int);
  int API MIO_OpenNewDev(void);
  int API MIO_ReadAllEpprom(unsigned char device,void *,unsigned long);
  int API MIO_ReadEpprom(unsigned char device,void *,unsigned long);
  int API MIO_ReadNxp(unsigned char device,void *,unsigned long);

tagR API MIO_ReadPort(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_Reset(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_ResetList(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_RestartList(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_SETZDATA(unsigned char device,unsigned char,unsigned char,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetAxisMotionParam(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetAxisOriginParam(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetControlMode(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetDelayMode(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetEndOfList(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_SetFirstPulseKiller(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetFlyRes(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetFpkParam2(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetFpkParam(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetLaserMode(unsigned char device,unsigned short);

int API MIO_SetLmcPartNo(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetMaxPolyDelay(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetPwmHalfPeriod(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetPwmPulseWidth(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_SetSPISimmerCurrent(unsigned char device,unsigned short,int);
  tagR API MIO_SetStandby(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short,int);

int API MIO_SetSysParam(unsigned char device,unsigned char *,unsigned int,unsigned char *,unsigned int);

tagR API MIO_SetTiming(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_StopExecute(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_StopList(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_TransferDataZ(unsigned char device,unsigned short *,unsigned long);
  tagR API MIO_Verify(unsigned char device);
  tagR API MIO_WriteAnalogPort1(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_WriteAnalogPort2(unsigned char device,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_WriteAnalogPortX(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short);
  tagR API MIO_WriteCmdBuf(unsigned char device,struct tagLmcCmd *);
  tagR API MIO_WriteCorTable(unsigned char device,int,unsigned short (* const);[65][2]);

int API MIO_WriteEpprom(unsigned char device,void *,unsigned long);
  int API MIO_WriteNxp(unsigned char device,void *,unsigned long);

tagR API MIO_WritePort(unsigned char device,unsigned short,unsigned short);

#endif

Lots of interesting stuff there, C++ and C,  this looks like the last interface to the LMC1 board, there is also the LMC1.dll

Processing it in the same way , we see this.

public: __thiscall CLaserParamExtOutput::CLaserParamExtOutput(void) public: __thiscall CLmcDev::CLmcDev(class CLmcDev const &) public: __thiscall CLmcDev::CLmcDev(void) public: __thiscall CQComByte::CQComByte(class CQComByte const &) public: __thiscall CQComByte::CQComByte(void) public: __thiscall CLaserParamExtOutput::~CLaserParamExtOutput(void) public: __thiscall CLmcDev::~CLmcDev(void) public: virtual __thiscall CQComByte::~CQComByte(void) public: class CLaserParamExtOutput & __thiscall CLaserParamExtOutput::operator=(class CLaserParamExtOutput const &) public: class CLmcDev & __thiscall CLmcDev::operator=(class CLmcDev const &) public: class CQComByte & __thiscall CQComByte::operator=(class CQComByte const &) const CLmcDev::`vftable' const CQComByte::`vftable' public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::AddCmd(unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short,unsigned short) public: void __thiscall CQComByte::Answer(unsigned char *,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::AppendNullCmd(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::AppendNullCmdAndRun(void) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::Ask(unsigned char *,unsigned long,int) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::AskAnswerStop(unsigned char *,unsigned long,unsigned char) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::AskStr(class CString,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::AxisGotoOrigin(int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::AxisMoveTo(int,double,int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::AxisMoveToDlg(int,double,int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::AxisMoveToGoal(int,int,int,int) public: double __thiscall CLmcDev::CalcJumpTime(double,unsigned short &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ChangeEnt(class CEntity *) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::CheckDevelopNumber(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::CheckLaserState(int) public: void __thiscall CLaserParamExtOutput::Clear(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::ClearLockInputPort(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::Co2QuickPulseModeLine(class CArray<class Pt2d,class Pt2d &> &,int,double,double) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::Connect(void) protected: void __thiscall CLmcDev::D2P(int const &,double const &,unsigned short &)const public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::D2P(double const &,double const &,unsigned short &,unsigned short &)const public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::D2P_X(double const &)const public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::D2P_Y(double const &)const public: void __thiscall CQComByte::Destroy(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::DestroyExcelCor(void) public: void __thiscall CQComByte::DisConnect(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::EleExecute(char *,void *,unsigned long,void *,unsigned long,unsigned long &) public: void __thiscall CQComByte::EmptyAnswerBuf(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::EnableLockInputPort(int) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::ExcelCor(double &,double &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ExeCurCmd(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ExecMarkCmdFile(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ExtAxisGetCurPos(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ExtAxisGotoOrigin(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ExtAxisMoveToPos(int,int,double,double,double) public: virtual int __thiscall CLmcDev::FinishMark(void) public: void __thiscall CQComByte::GetAnswer(unsigned char *,int,int &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetAxisCoorInt(int const &) public: class CString __thiscall CLmcDev::GetBoardHardInfoString(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetCardNo(void)const public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetCardSN(void)const public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetCardState(unsigned short &) public: double __thiscall CLmcDev::GetCoor(int const &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetCurCmdNum(void) public: unsigned short __thiscall CLmcDev::GetCurOutPortData(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetCurPosition(double &,double &) public: unsigned short __thiscall CLmcDev::GetDevState(void) protected: double __thiscall CLmcDev::GetDistMap(int const &,unsigned short const &)const public: class Pt2d __thiscall CLmcDev::GetExcelCorPt(class Pt2d) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetFiberStateCode(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::GetFieldOffset(double &,double &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetFlyPulseCount55(int,unsigned short &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetFlySpeed(double,double &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetFlyWaitCount(int,int &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetHardwareVer(unsigned short &,unsigned short &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetIOBoardType(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetLaserStateErrCode(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetLmcBoardNo(unsigned short &,unsigned short &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetLockInputPort(unsigned short &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetMarkCount(int,int &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetMarkTime(int &,int &,int &,int &) public: double __thiscall CLmcDev::GetMaxCurrent(void) public: double __thiscall CLmcDev::GetMaxPowerRatio(void) protected: unsigned short __thiscall CLmcDev::GetPluseMap(int const &,double const &)const public: double __thiscall CLmcDev::GetRealMap(double,double,double * const) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetState(unsigned short &) public: unsigned short __thiscall CLmcDev::GetStopSignal(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GetUserData(unsigned short &,unsigned short &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::Goto(double,double) protected: int __thiscall CLmcDev::GotoOriginKernal(int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGGetConfigExtend(int,unsigned short &,unsigned short &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGGetPrepump(int &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGGetPulseWidth(int &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGGetPulseWidthMaxIndex(int &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGGetPulseWidthPs(int &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGSetConfigExtend(int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGSetPrepump(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGSetPulseWidth(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGSetPulseWidthIndex(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPGSetPulseWidthPs(int) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::IPG_CloseMO(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IPG_GetStateMO_AP(unsigned short &) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::IPG_OpenMO(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::InitCfgExcelCor(struct LmcCfg *) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::InitGetBoardHardInfo(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::InitLmc(int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::InitZData(double *,unsigned long *,int,unsigned long,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::InitZDataEx(double *,unsigned long *,int,int) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::IsAnswered(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsAxisGoHome(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsAxisInOrigin(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsBoardSupportFun(int) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::IsConnect(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsEntWillChange(class CEntity *) public: virtual int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsEsc(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsExtAxisInOrigin(int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsMustDestroyDog(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::IsSleepTimeCloseLaser(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsStartExeList(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::IsValidDev(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::LaserLeakHandle(int) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::LaserSignalOn(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::MM2P(int const &,double const &)const public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::MarkBarcodePointMode(class CEntity *,int,double,double,class CMatrix2d *) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::MarkEnt(class CEntity *,int,double,double,class CMatrix2d *) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::MarkEntArray(class CEntity *,int,double,double,class CMatrix2d *) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::MarkLineArray(class CArray<class Pt2d,class Pt2d &> &,double,double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::MarkWobble(class CArray<class Pt2d,class Pt2d &> &,double,double,double,double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::NewCmd(unsigned short *,int,unsigned short &,unsigned short &) public: struct tagResult __thiscall CLmcDev::New_MIO_AxisGoOrigin(unsigned char,unsigned short,int,class CWnd *) public: struct tagResult __thiscall CLmcDev::New_MIO_MoveAxisTo(unsigned char,unsigned short,unsigned long,class CWnd *) protected: void __thiscall CLmcDev::P2D(int const &,unsigned short const &,double &)const public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::P2D(unsigned short const &,unsigned short const &,double &,double &)const public: double __thiscall CLmcDev::P2D_X(int const &)const public: double __thiscall CLmcDev::P2D_Y(int const &)const public: double __thiscall CLmcDev::P2MM(int const &,int const &)const public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::QS_Digtal_Output(unsigned short,unsigned short) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::ReadCommBlock(unsigned char *,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ReadCorFile(class CString) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ReadPort(unsigned short &) public: virtual int __thiscall CLmcDev::ReadyMark(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::Reset(void) public: virtual int __thiscall CLmcDev::Run(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SPI_CloseGlobal(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SPI_OpenGlobal(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SPI_SetWave(void) public: virtual int __thiscall CLmcDev::ScanBmp(class CEntity *,double,double,class CMatrix2d *) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::ScanBmpPtBuf(struct BmpScanPt *,int,int,double,double,double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetAnalog2(unsigned short) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetAxisAccTime(int) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SetBoardSNStr(class CString) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SetCardNo(int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetCo2FPK(int,double,double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetCurrent(double) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SetDevState(unsigned short,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetDisableZ(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetEnableZ(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetFPK(int,int,double,double,int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetFlyRes(int,double,int,int,double,int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetFreqAnalogOutput(int) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SetJumpDelayTC(double,double) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SetMaxCurrent(double) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SetMaxPowerRatio(double) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::SetOwen(class CWnd *) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetPowerAnalogOutput(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetSPISimmerCurrent(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::SetZData(unsigned char,unsigned char,unsigned short) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::ShowMarkInfo(class CString) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::StandardMarkLine(class CArray<class Pt2d,class Pt2d &> &,int,double,double,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::StopExecute(void) public: void __thiscall CLmcDev::UpdateCurAxisCoor(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::VarTextElementConnectHostGetAnwser(class CEntSuperText *) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::WaitForAnswer(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::WaitForFinish(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::WaitForMarkFinish(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::WeldLine(class CArray<class Pt2d,class Pt2d &> &,int,double,double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::WeldPoint(class CArray<class Pt2d,class Pt2d &> &,int,double,double) public: int __thiscall CQComByte::WriteCommBlock(unsigned char *,unsigned long) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::WritePort(unsigned short) int __cdecl ctrlGetRaycusState(class CLmcDev *,unsigned short &,int &,int &) int __cdecl ctrlRaycusSetParam(class CLmcDev *,int,int,int) void __cdecl gf_CloseUsbMonitor(void) int __cdecl gf_DlgInputPassword(class CString &) int __cdecl gf_DlgSetCfg(int,class CLmcDev *,struct LmcCfg &,class CWnd *) class CString __cdecl gf_GetLmcCfgPath(void) class CLmcDev * __cdecl gf_GetLmcDev(void) struct tagResult __cdecl gf_GetLmcDevState(class CLmcDev *) void __cdecl gf_InitLmcCfg(struct LmcCfg &) int __cdecl gf_InitUsbMonitor(class CWnd *) int __cdecl gf_ReadLmcCfg(struct LmcCfg &,class CString) void __cdecl gf_RestartMark(void) int __cdecl gf_SaveLmcCfg(struct LmcCfg &,class CString) void __cdecl gf_SetLmcCfgPath(class CString) class CLmcDev * __cdecl gf_SetLmcDev(class CLmcDev *) void __cdecl gf_SetPauseFlag(int) int __cdecl gf_StartMarkDlg(class CString,class CString) int __cdecl gf_UsbMonitorGetNewDevice(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listChangeMarkCount(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listDelayTime(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listDelayTimeUs(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listDirectLaserSwitch(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listDirectMarkTo(double,double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listEnableWeldPowerWave(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listEndOfList(void) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listFlyDelay(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listFlyEnable(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listFlyEncoderCount(int,int,int,int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listIPGOpenMO(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listIPGPulseWidthIndex(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listIPGSetConfigExtend(int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listIPGSetPrepump(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listIPGYLPMPulseWidth(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listIPGYLPMPulseWidthPs(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listJptSetParam(double,int,double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listJumpSpeed(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listJumpTo(double,double,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listLaserExtOutput(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listLaserOffDelay(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listLaserOnDelay(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listLaserOnPoint(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listMarkCurrent(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listMarkEndDelay(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listMarkFreq(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listMarkPowerRatio(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listMarkPulseWidth(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listMarkSpeed(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listMarkTo(double,double,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listPolygonDelay(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listSetAnalogFPK(int,int,double,double,int,int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listSetDaZ(double) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listSetDaZWord(unsigned short) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listSetMarkParam(struct MarkParam &) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listSetWeldPowerWave(int,unsigned short * const,unsigned short * const) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listWaitForInput(unsigned short,unsigned short) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::listWritrPort(unsigned short) void __cdecl lmc_CloseDriver(void) int __cdecl lmc_GetValidDev(class CLmcDev * * const,int &) int __cdecl lmc_OpenDriver(int) public: int __thiscall CLmcDev::lsFlyWaitInput(int,int,int)

Yep, as figured this is a higher level C++ API to talk to LMCMIO.dll etc.

These are all 32 bit windows AFX/MFC dlls, you can tell via the CBitmap/CWnd etc

Some of the basic C funcs are just wrappers that call the MIO, like lmc_OpenDriver is a stub for MIO_Open, there is also a sprinkling of gf_ calls which seems mostly related to setup and configs as well as some utility functions.

DataMgr.dll is the other interesting DLL, that one is heavily tied to EzCad, checking the  LMC board and so on. more of the gf_  and AFX/MFC there interfaces to the barcode generation, Excel and huffman encoding in there too, so it does a lot of the heavy lifting for EzCad.

We’re trying to get the seller (Who has been very helpful so far) to work with us on the cutting issue for the stencils, unfortunately we have to get through all the basic troubleshooting and setup issues that most users will go thru (we did too) but i sent them an example EZD file that shows the issue, so hopefully they can cut it and test it, unfortunately New Year and Corona Virus since they’re in Wuhan….

So not a terrific amount of useful info so far, I was able to write a quick test app to init the system and see about the incompatibilities with the DLLs and different versions  of EzCad , it being a heavily C++ system there are a lot of ABI changes so anytime a vtable, or such changes it’ll break. It’s a lot easier to patch around this for pure C import DLLs.

Turning the file save on for EzCad to allow using it without being connected to the Laser, is useful too.

How to unmangle decorated names

This uses the undocumented unDNameEx function to demangle C++ names from msvc, its what the undname.exe uses, which you can just do a dumpbin /exports and feed the results into as well. First it scans the dll for the exports, then it demangles them. unDNameEx can cause memory issues if not used properly.

// demangler.cpp : This file contains the ‘main’ function. Program execution begins and ends there.

//

#include <windows.h>

#include <Dbghelp.h>

#pragma comment(lib,"dbghelp.lib")

#include <iostream>

#include <string>

#include <vector>

extern "C" PSTR __cdecl __unDNameEx(

    PSTR output_buffer,

     PCSTR mangled_name,

    DWORD cb,

    void* (__cdecl* memory_et)(DWORD),

    void(__cdecl* memory_free)(void*),

    PSTR(__cdecl* unk_GetParameter)(long i),

    DWORD un_flags

);

static const DWORD un_dwFlags = UNDNAME_COMPLETE;

static void* __cdecl _dAlloc(ULONG cb)

{

    return new (std::nothrow) char[cb];

}

static void __cdecl _dFree(void* p)

{

    if (p) {

    delete[] p;

    }

}

static PSTR __cdecl _dGetParameter(long ignore)

{

    static char none[] = "";

    return none;

}


bool GetDLLFileExports(const char *szFileName, std::vector<std::string>&pszFunctions)

{

    HANDLE hFile;

    HANDLE hFileMapping;

    LPVOID lpFileBase;

    PIMAGE_DOS_HEADER pImg_DOS_Header;

    PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS pImg_NT_Header;

    PIMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY pImg_Export_Dir;

    hFile = CreateFile(szFileName, GENERIC_READ, FILE_SHARE_READ, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, 0);

    if (hFile == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {

        return false;

    }

    hFileMapping = CreateFileMapping(hFile, NULL, PAGE_READONLY, 0, 0, NULL);

    if (hFileMapping == 0) {

        CloseHandle(hFile);

         return false;

    }

    lpFileBase = MapViewOfFile(hFileMapping, FILE_MAP_READ, 0, 0, 0);

    if (lpFileBase == 0) {

        CloseHandle(hFileMapping);

        CloseHandle(hFile);

        return false;

    }

    pImg_DOS_Header = (PIMAGE_DOS_HEADER)lpFileBase;

    pImg_NT_Header = (PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS)((LONG)pImg_DOS_Header + (LONG)pImg_DOS_Header->e_lfanew);


    if (IsBadReadPtr(pImg_NT_Header, sizeof(IMAGE_NT_HEADERS)) || pImg_NT_Header->Signature != IMAGE_NT_SIGNATURE) {

        UnmapViewOfFile(lpFileBase);

        CloseHandle(hFileMapping);

        CloseHandle(hFile);

        return false;

    }

    pImg_Export_Dir = (PIMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY)pImg_NT_Header->OptionalHeader.DataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT].VirtualAddress;

    if (!pImg_Export_Dir) {

        UnmapViewOfFile(lpFileBase);

        CloseHandle(hFileMapping);

        CloseHandle(hFile);

        return false;

    }

    pImg_Export_Dir = (PIMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY)ImageRvaToVa(pImg_NT_Header, pImg_DOS_Header, (DWORD)pImg_Export_Dir, 0);

    DWORD **ppdwNames = (DWORD **)pImg_Export_Dir->AddressOfNames;

    ppdwNames = (PDWORD*)ImageRvaToVa(pImg_NT_Header, pImg_DOS_Header, (DWORD)ppdwNames, 0);

    if (!ppdwNames) {

        UnmapViewOfFile(lpFileBase);

        CloseHandle(hFileMapping);

         CloseHandle(hFile);

        return false;

    }

    unsigned int nNoOfExports = pImg_Export_Dir->NumberOfNames;

    for (unsigned i = 0; i < nNoOfExports; i++) {

        char *szFunc = (PSTR)ImageRvaToVa(pImg_NT_Header, pImg_DOS_Header, (DWORD)* ppdwNames, 0);

        pszFunctions.push_back(szFunc);

        ppdwNames++;

    }

    UnmapViewOfFile(lpFileBase);

    CloseHandle(hFileMapping);

    CloseHandle(hFile);

    return true;

};


int main(int argc,char*argv[])      
{

    if (argc < 2) {

        fprintf(stderr,"need a dll to demangle as first parameter\n");

        exit(-1);

    }

    std::vector<std::string>pszFunctions;

    if (GetDLLFileExports(argv[1], pszFunctions)) {

        for (auto s : pszFunctions) {

            // undecorate them

            char* pUndecorated = __unDNameEx(

                NULL, s.data(), 0

                , _dAlloc, _dFree, _dGetParameter, un_dwFlags);

            printf("%s;\n", pUndecorated);

            delete[] pUndecorated;

        }

    }

}



Whats next..

There are a few ways I usually head into this sort of work, RE it all and rebuild, write trace and trampoline DLLS that monitor whats going on, and can inject, google for other people doing it (usually do that one last, but so far haven’t seen one! )

With this project I believe writing a DLL that can trace and intercept the data going via LMCMIO.dll is the way to go, Rohitab’s API Monitor will do a lot there, but a proxy/trampoline/interposer DLL is going to be more useful. So lets do that instead…..

Exit stage left.

CURTAIN

Act 1, Scene 2.

(this section is still in editing)

Proxy DLL

Some of the issues with making a proxy C++ DLL are around the name mangling, unlike C you can’t just alias it in the .def  file , which is also useful for pass thru.

The issue is that the linker sees the first @ and treats it as the ordinal or something else and terminates the name, so if the mangled name is ?Foo@@bar in the .DEF file , the linker will spit out ?Foo so when you go to load the dll it’ll fail. One way to fix the issue is to demangle the name and have the proxy DLL use the exact same name, which can be a hassle. So my approach was to post process the DLL to change the name, i’ll swap out @ in the name to $ or something that the DEF file will carry thru to the linker. Then we just post process the DLL to rename that $ back to the @.

Example of the original mangled function name

1    0 00001B60 ?MIO_AxisGoOrigin@@YA?AUtagResult@@EGHPAVCWnd@@@Z

demangled it looks like

struct tagResult API MIO_AxisGoOrigin(unsigned char device,unsigned short,int,class CWnd *cWnd);

so in the proxy DLL .def if you do (the aliased function is also changed but that is typical)

?MIO_AxisGoOrigin@@YA?AUtagResult@@EGHPAVCWnd@@@Z=QMIO_AxisGoOriginAAYAQAUtagResultAAEGHPAVCWndAAAZ @1

But what you’ll get is :-

?MIO_AxisGoOrigin$$YA?AUtagResult

Which of course isn’t great. compiling it as the demangled should be ok, however name mangling can change so its not always the best way to do it. So with this one, i’m going to replace the @’s with something else and then replace it in the resulting binary instead. It’d be great to find out yet another way, no amount of quoting in the DEF seems to fix it. But the SaR is usually fine.

A proxy DLL simply exports the original function names in its DLL and then internally loads the original DLL which is usually renamed. It then constructs a trampoline to jump to the original function

hL would be the original DLL, and we fetch the pointer to the original function

  p[0] = GetProcAddress(hL, “?MIO_AxisGoOrigin@@YA?AUtagResult@@EGHPAVCWnd@@@Z”);

For x86 you can just inline __asm the jump to the original function. Later on adding extra code to dump what its doing etc. For x64 it’d be an external .asm file. So far all the laser stuff is 32 bits so just covering that for now

extern “C”” {

    void QMIO_AxisGoOriginAAYAQAUtagResultAAEGHPAVCWndAAAZ() {

        __asm

          {            jmp p[0 * 4]

        }

    }

}

Whats going on here is a DLL function lives at a memory address, GetProcAddress returns that address in memory. Instead of the original DLLs address we return our functions address, then after we run our code it jumps to the old DLL address and continues the function as normal,  we can snoop, change data skip it. and so on.

DLLs can do some interesting things like we can have it bypass our DLL and jump straight to the original function, in the original DLL as well.

Build the proxy DLL

I have a modified version of https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/16541/Create-your-Proxy-DLLs-automatically for this, there is also Proxify 

This the skeleton proxy function for MIO_AxisGoOrigin in LMCIO.DLL, it saves the flags and registers, then prints a message to the internal debug system in windows, then jumps to the original function.

Starting with LMCMIO.dll

// struct tagResult __cdecl MIO_AxisGoOrigin(unsigned char,unsigned short,int,class CWnd *)

// ?MIO_AxisGoOrigin@@YA?AUtagResult@@EGHPAVCWnd@@@Z

extern "C" __declspec(naked) void __E__0__()

{

    __asm pushad

    __asm pushfd

    OutputDebugStringA("struct tagResult __cdecl MIO_AxisGoOrigin(unsigned char,unsigned short,int,class CWnd *)\n");

    __asm popfd

    __asm popad

    __asm

    {

        jmp procs[E__MIO_AXISGOORIGIN__YA_AUTAGRESULT__EGHPAVCWND___Z*4];

    }

}

This code reads the address of the original function, and stores it for use in the proxy function

procs[E__MIO_AXISGOORIGIN__YA_AUTAGRESULT__EGHPAVCWND___Z] = GetProcAddress(hL,”?MIO_AxisGoOrigin@@YA?AUtagResult@@EGHPAVCWnd@@@Z”);

if( procs[E__MIO_AXISGOORIGIN__YA_AUTAGRESULT__EGHPAVCWND___Z] == NULL ) { OutputDebugStringA("Failed to get proc address ?MIO_AxisG

It replaces the ? and @’s with _ so that it will compiler properly as they are not valid C++ function names and we’ll deal with the binary later.

So stepping back slightly and generating a DLL to show the mangling issue as it appears , making a .DEF file that uses the mangled names

EXPORTS

?MIO_AxisGoOrigin@@YA?AUtagResult@@EGHPAVCWnd@@@Z=__E__0__ @1

?MIO_Close@@YAXH@Z=__E__1__ @2

?MIO_Close@@YAXXZ=__E__2__ @3

?MIO_Cmd@@YA?AUtagResult@@EGGGGGG@Z=__E__3__ @4

?MIO_DisableLaser@@YA?AUtagResult@@E@Z=__E__4__ @5

Dumpbin /exports of the proxy.dll we can see the alias to the proxy function.

1    0 00011050 ?MIO_AxisGoOrigin = @ILT+75(___E__0__)

2    1 0001104B ?MIO_Close = @ILT+70(___E__1__)

3    2 00011046 ?MIO_Close = @ILT+65(___E__2__)

4    3 00011073 ?MIO_Cmd = @ILT+110(___E__3__)

5    4 00011055 ?MIO_DisableLaser = @ILT+80(___E__4__)

6    5 0001106E ?MIO_ENABLEZ = @ILT+105(___E__5__)

7    6 00011069 ?MIO_EarseEpprom = @ILT+100(___E__6__)

The typo in the API Earse makes me think of the Fast Show’s ERAS videos.

If we replace the LMCMIO.dll with our proxy, what happens? I’m building it on 2019 but compiling with 2013 toolset.

Renaming the original LMCMIO.dll  to LMCMIOold.dll and copying in the proxy dll to the same folder as EzCad2 and trying it, nothing happens. The app just exits with no warnings, but why?  Well it’s going to be an issue with the DLL name issue mentioned earlier, when windows tries to load functions from our proxy DLL it’ll fail, because the names are wrong, the oridinals are right but its rare anyone loads by index and not name, especially C++, how do we see this?

Windows has plenty of tools for this. We need the windows debugging tools, windbg x84 and gflags.exe. Gflags is going to allow us to turn on the internal DLL load tracing, so that we can see whats happening behind the scenes without any extra work.

Switch on SLS(show loader snaps) mode for EzCad2 and the DLL just so we can watch it later. Don’t forget to turn it off after we’re done as it generates a lot of data and will slow things down.

From the command line

gflags.exe -i EzCad2.exe +sls

gflags.exe –i LMC1.dll +sls

gflags.exe –i LMCMIO.dll +sls

C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\Debuggers\x86\gflags.exe" -i EzCad2.exe +sls

Current Registry Settings for EzCad2.exe executable are: 00000002

    sls – Show Loader Snaps

DLLs also cascade load, that is the app loads a DLL, and that DLL loads another DLL. So I added the snap loader tracer to the LMC1.dll as well. WinDepends is a good place to start poking at DLL load order, as well windbg.

Next load windbgx86 and open the executable, EzCad2.exe.

There are a different modes for DLL loading sometimes its handled by windows on program start, sometimes its explicit code, or delay loading. In this case its being handled by windows so all we have to do is load it into the debugger and we’ll see the issue straight away without actually running EzCad2

Working backwards we can see LMCMIO failed to load

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – LdrpHandleOneOldFormatImportDescriptor – ERROR: Snapping the imports from DLL "C:\ezcad\newer\Lmc1.dll" to DLL "C:\ezcad\newer\LMCMIO.dll" failed with status 0xc0000139

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – LdrpLoadImportModule – RETURN: Status: 0xc0000139

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – LdrpHandleOneOldFormatImportDescriptor – ERROR: Loading "????" from the import table of DLL "C:\ezcad\newer\EzCad2.exe" failed with status 0xc0000139

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – LdrpInitializeProcess – ERROR: Walking the import tables of the executable and its static imports failed with status 0xc0000139

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – _LdrpInitialize – ERROR: Process initialization failed with status 0xc0000139

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – LdrpInitializationFailure – ERROR: Process initialization failed with status 0xc0000139

eax=00000000 ebx=7734206c ecx=0018f928 edx=0018f929 esi=c0000139 edi=7efdd000

eip=7725fcc2 esp=0018fcb0 ebp=0018fd00 iopl=0         nv up ei pl zr na pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000246

ntdll!NtTerminateProcess+0x12:

7725fcc2 83c404          add     esp,4

Going back in the windbg logs

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – LdrpSnapThunk – WARNING: Hint index 0x23 for procedure "?MIO_OpenNewDev@@YAHXZ" in DLL "LMCMIO.dll" is invalid

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – LdrpSnapThunk – ERROR: Procedure "?MIO_OpenNewDev@@YAHXZ" could not be located in DLL "LMCMIO.dll"

(8bc.2130): Unknown exception – code c0000139 (first chance)

08bc:2130 @ 1440796701 – LdrpGenericExceptionFilter – ERROR: Function LdrpSnapIAT raised exception 0xc0000139

So it tried to load ?MIO_OpenNewDev@@YAHXZ from LMCMIO.dll which is the proxy DLL (Which this is an expected failure)

Going back to the .DEF file lets look at the function

?MIO_OpenNewDev@@YAHXZ=__E__35__ @36

Thats what it ought to look like, the ordinal is correct but its been terminated at the @@ , lets check whats in the actual DLL

dumpbin /exports LMCMIO.dll

       36   23 00011177 ?MIO_OpenNewDev = @ILT+370(___E__35__)

And there it is, the proxy alias is there , which the = @ILT part. So even though the .DEF is correct, the linker has terminated at the @ because thats the token to specify the ordinal (an ordinal is a numerical index for a function, versus a name)

So now we have to go back and fix this issue. I’ve already modified my dll proxy tool to correct the names in the C++ code (basically replacing the ?/@ with _ ) but the .DEF file still generates the C++ mangled name. I have to next modify the app to also spit out the new names in the .DEF then post process the DLL to put the original C++ mangled names back.

taking a break for dinner….

Post Processing the proxy DLL

After some dinner we restart.

So the plan is to change the proxy dll maker tool to output the sanatised names to the C++ code and the .DEF file, so instead of @ and ? it will substitute them for Q and A then after the DLL is compiled a, make a second tool that parses the original DLL exports and then sanatises them in the same way , read the proxy dll and search and replace the sanatised version with the original…

After modding the dll proxy tool, and compiling it , next is throwing together a quick SAR tool. ugh the double space wordpress html nonsense… i’ll clean it up on a edit pass.

// DLLSar.cpp : This file contains the ‘main’ function. Program execution begins and ends there#include <windows.h>

#include <iostream>

#include <string>

#include <fstream>

#include <streambuf>

#include <algorithm>

#include <vector>

std::vector<std::string> defList;

std::vector<std::string> replaceList;

// list of previously used names this run

std::vector<std::string> previouslyOnSAR;

// list of strings to backlist ( no replacement )

std::vector<std::string> blackListSAR;


bool SAR(const std::string& searchString, const std::string& replaceString, std::string& replaceBuffer)

{

    bool found = false;

    size_t pos = 0;

    if (searchString.length() != replaceString.length()) {

        std::cout << "bad replace" << std::endl;

        exit(-4);

        return false;

    }


    // reset

    pos = replaceBuffer.find(searchString);

    while (pos != std::string::npos)

    {

        // replace bufer.

         std::cout << "search = " << searchString << " replace " << replaceString << std::endl;

        replaceBuffer.replace(pos, searchString.size(), replaceString);

        found = true;

        std::cout << "-";

        // find next

        pos = replaceBuffer.find(searchString, pos + replaceString.size());


    }

    return found;

}

bool exportProcAddresses(void* hModule)

{

#if defined( _WIN32 )  
    unsigned char* lpBase = reinterpret_cast<unsigned char*>(hModule);

    IMAGE_DOS_HEADER* idhDosHeader = reinterpret_cast<IMAGE_DOS_HEADER*>(lpBase);

    if (idhDosHeader->e_magic == 0x5A4D)

    {

#if defined( _M_IX86 ) 
        IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32* inhNtHeader = reinterpret_cast<IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32*>(lpBase + idhDosHeader->e_lfanew);

#elif defined( _M_AMD64 ) 
        IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64* inhNtHeader = reinterpret_cast<IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64*>(lpBase + idhDosHeader->e_lfanew);

#endif 
         if (inhNtHeader->Signature == 0x4550)

        {

             IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY* iedExportDirectory = reinterpret_cast<IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY*>(lpBase + inhNtHeader->OptionalHeader.DataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT].VirtualAddress);

             std::cout << "Procesing DLL" << std::endl;

            for (register unsigned int uiIter = 0; uiIter < iedExportDirectory->NumberOfNames; ++uiIter)

            {

                char* szNames = reinterpret_cast<char*>(lpBase + reinterpret_cast<unsigned long*>(lpBase + iedExportDirectory->AddressOfNames)[uiIter]);

                //printf("%s\n", szNames);

                if (std::find(blackListSAR.begin(), blackListSAR.end(), szNames) != blackListSAR.end()) {

                    std::cout << "matched " << szNames << " skipped " << std::endl;

                    continue;

                }

                defList.push_back(szNames);

            }

            return true;

        }

    }

#endif 
    std::cerr << "DLL processing failed" << std::endl;

     return false;

}


bool parseDLL(const char* dllName)

{

    std::cout << "Parsing " << dllName << std::endl;

    HMODULE lib = LoadLibraryExA(dllName, NULL, DONT_RESOLVE_DLL_REFERENCES);

    if (!lib) {

        std::cerr << "load lib failed" << std::endl;

        return false;

    }

    // empty the list

    defList.clear();

    return exportProcAddresses(lib);

}


std::string sanatise(std::string& name)

{

    std::string output = name;

    for (uint16_t i = 0; i < name.length(); i++) {

        if (name.at(i) == ‘?’) {

            output.at(i) = ‘Q’;

        }

        if (name.at(i) == ‘@’) {

            output.at(i) = ‘A’;

        }

    }

    return output;

}


int main(int argc, char* argv[])

{

    std::string proxyBuffer;

    if (argc < 4) {

        exit(-1);

    }

    // build list of exports from original DLL

    if (parseDLL(argv[1]) == false) {

        exit(-2);

    }


    // proxied DLL

    try {

        std::ifstream inputFile(argv[2], std::ios::in | std::ios::binary | std::ios::ate);

        std::vector<char> dataVector(inputFile.tellg());

        inputFile.seekg(0, std::ios::beg);

        inputFile.read(dataVector.data(), dataVector.size());

        proxyBuffer.assign(dataVector.begin(), dataVector.end());

    }

    catch (std::ofstream::failure & readErr)

    {

        std::cerr << "\n\nFail occured when reading from file " << argv[2] << " "

            << readErr.what()

             << std::endl;

        return -3;

    }

   
    uint16_t index = 0;

    // build list of replacements.

    for (auto originalName : defList) {

        std::cout << originalName << "\n" << sanatise(originalName) << "\n";

        replaceList.push_back( sanatise(originalName));

    }

    index = 0;

    // replace them

    for (auto originalName : defList) {

        if (SAR( replaceList.at(index), originalName, proxyBuffer)) {

            std::cout << "Y";

        }

        else {

            std::cout << "n";

        }

        index++;

    }

    std::cout << "\n" << "Writing output file " << argv[3] << std::endl;

    {

        try {

            std::ofstream outputFile(argv[3], std::ios::out | std::ios::binary);

            outputFile.write(proxyBuffer.data(), proxyBuffer.length());

        }

        catch (std::ofstream::failure & writeErr) {

            std::cerr << "\nFail occured when writing to the output file " << argv[3] << " "

                 << writeErr.what()

                << std::endl;

             return -2;

        }

    }

}

After making the changes to the DLL proxy tool, the exports of the DLL now look like this, ( the ?s become Q and the @ becomes an A)

          1    0 00011050 QMIO_AxisGoOriginAAYAQAUtagResultAAEGHPAVCWndAAAZ = @ILT+75(___E__0__)

Running the SAR code using the original dll and proxied dlls as input, and an output name.

Looking at the output file with dumpbin /exports we see its changed as expected



1    0 00001B60
?MIO_AxisGoOrigin@@YA?AUtagResult@@EGHPAVCWnd@@@Z

It correctly demangles as well, so lets see if it loads.

Testing in WinDBG X86

Lets try windbgx86 again. making sure to add +sls to the proxy dll with gflags, since it is the actual file that stores those changes and we’ve liekly overwritten it.

ModLoad: 0fe80000 0fea6000   C:\ezcad\newer\LMCMIO.dll

5754:2ecc @ 1448637171 – LdrpMapViewOfSection – RETURN: Status: 0x00000000

5754:2ecc @ 1448637171 – LdrpFindOrMapDll – RETURN: Status: 0x00000000

5754:2ecc @ 1448637171 – LdrpHandleOneOldFormatImportDescriptor – INFO: DLL "C:\ezcad\newer\LMCMIO.dll" imports "KERNEL32.dll"

5754:2ecc @ 1448637171 – LdrpLoadImportModule – ENTER: DLL name: KERNEL32.dll DLL path: C:\ezcad\newer;;C:\Windows\system32;C:\Windows\system;C:\Windows;.;C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\Debuggers\x86;C:\msys64\usr\bin;C:\msys64;C:\msys64\usr\bin;C:\Python36\Scripts\;C:\Python36\;C:\Python37;C:\Program Files\NVIDIA GPU Computing Toolkit\CUDA\v10.1\bin;C:\Program Files\NVIDIA GPU Computing Toolkit\CUDA\v10.1\libnvvp;C:\Program Files\Git LFS;C:\Windows\system32;C:\Windows;C:\Windows\System32\Wbem;C:\

Great, no errors on Loading so lets try running EzCad2. 

Now we see the debugger spit out the following

int __cdecl MIO_Open(int)

Which is what was expected, it is at least now loading  our trampoline function which is just a simple debug string output for now.

// int __cdecl MIO_Open(int)

// ?MIO_Open@@YAHH@Z

extern "C" __declspec(naked) void __E__34__()

{

    __asm pushad

    __asm pushfd

    OutputDebugStringA("int __cdecl MIO_Open(int)\n");

    __asm popfd

    __asm popad

    __asm

    {

        jmp procs[E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ*4];

    }

}

OK, so now we are inside our function, the proxy dll is working so far but I initially left in some debug code for testing proxy DLLs that made it keep looping the function. After rebuilding the proxy DLL I ran EzCad2 again in WinDbgx86 and :-

image

All working and the original DLL is also being called, we can see the debug trace calls to the functions being shown in the debug viewer, SLS is still on so it is much noiser output than normal. 

We can disable SLS for now. Just run gflags with –sls on the exe, and two dlls (Technically I haven’t tried it against the laser module, but trampoline/proxies generally either just work or they crash it is very rarely inbetween)

(3fe8.53a0): Break instruction exception – code 80000003 (first chance)

eax=00000000 ebx=00000000 ecx=94b00000 edx=0008e3c8 esi=fffffffe edi=00000000

eip=772e10a6 esp=0018fb08 ebp=0018fb34 iopl=0         nv up ei pl zr na pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000246

ntdll!LdrpDoDebuggerBreak+0x2c:

772e10a6 cc              int     3

0:000> g

ModLoad: 75ec0000 75f20000   C:\Windows\SysWOW64\IMM32.DLL

ModLoad: 76d90000 76e5e000   C:\Windows\syswow64\MSCTF.dll

ModLoad: 00c00000 00c38000   C:\Windows\SysWOW64\odbcint.dll

DllMain called

DllMain DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH

ModLoad: 00c50000 00c5c000   C:\ezcad\newer\LMCMIOOLD.DLL

ModLoad: 70700000 70780000   C:\Windows\SysWOW64\uxtheme.dll

ModLoad: 75fc0000 75fef000   C:\Windows\syswow64\WINTRUST.dll

ModLoad: 75510000 75632000   C:\Windows\syswow64\CRYPT32.dll

ModLoad: 75750000 7575c000   C:\Windows\syswow64\MSASN1.dll

ModLoad: 6f1a0000 6f1a9000   C:\Windows\SysWOW64\hid.dll

int __cdecl MIO_Open(int)

ModLoad: 03080000 031df000   C:\Windows\SysWOW64\ole32.dll

ModLoad: 026f0000 02703000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\AngleRotate.plg

ModLoad: 02730000 02743000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\AngleRotate2.plg

ModLoad: 025a0000 025aa000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\ChangeText.plg

ModLoad: 02750000 02775000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\GlobeMark.plg

ModLoad: 02710000 02720000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\IPGSet.plg

ModLoad: 02780000 02797000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\jczfont.plg

ModLoad: 027a0000 027b2000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\MultiFileMark.plg

ModLoad: 027c0000 027dd000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\MultiPartMark.plg

ModLoad: 02af0000 02b25000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\PowerRuler.plg

ModLoad: 03080000 030a7000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\ReadFace3d.plg

ModLoad: 6b6e0000 6b7a8000   C:\Windows\SysWOW64\OPENGL32.dll

ModLoad: 6d260000 6d282000   C:\Windows\SysWOW64\GLU32.dll

ModLoad: 030b0000 030d3000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\RingMark.plg

ModLoad: 02b40000 02b5b000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\RingTextMark.plg

ModLoad: 030e0000 03102000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\RotaryMark.plg

ModLoad: 02c50000 02c6a000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\RotateText.plg

ModLoad: 03110000 03135000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\Splitmark2.plg

ModLoad: 03140000 03152000   C:\ezcad\newer\PLUG\SuperProject.plg

ModLoad: 70b60000 70cfe000   C:\Windows\WinSxS\x86_microsoft.windows.common-controls_6595b64144ccf1df_6.0.7601.24483_none_2b200f664577e14b\comctl32.DLL

ModLoad: 745b0000 745be000   C:\Windows\SysWOW64\DEVRTL.dll

int __cdecl MIO_Open(int)

struct tagResult __cdecl MIO_GetLmcInfo(unsigned short * const)

struct _GUID __cdecl MIO_GetClassGUID(void)

void * __cdecl MIO_GetDevHandle(int)

void * __cdecl MIO_GetDevHandle(int)

void * __cdecl MIO_GetDevHandle(int)

void * __cdecl MIO_GetDevHandle(int)

void * __cdecl MIO_GetDevHandle(int)

void * __cdecl MIO_GetDevHandle(int)

void * __cdecl MIO_GetDevHandle(int)

void * __cdecl MIO_GetDevHandle(int)

DllMain called

DllMain DLL_PROCESS_DETACH

eax=00000000 ebx=00000000 ecx=00000002 edx=00000000 esi=77342100 edi=773420c0

eip=7725fcc2 esp=0018fe70 ebp=0018fe8c iopl=0         nv up ei pl zr na pe nc

cs=0023  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00000246

ntdll!NtTerminateProcess+0x12:

7725fcc2 83c404          add     esp,4

Much less noiser output in the debugger .It also looks like the PLG plugins are actually DLLs since they’re being ModLoaded

We can see now that it is using MIO_Open, MIO_GetLmcInfo, MIO_GetClassGUID, MIO_GetDevHandle

Now I can actually start intercepting the calls and look at the data going by.

Since I was writing the code and the write up at the same time, it is time for another break for the evening and back for the rest of the intercept tomorrow!

So far changes to the proxy making application that can handle C++ name mangling with the post process SAR Tool and a basic Proxy DLL for LMCMIO, as well as figuring out the keyboard F1 and F2 code.

Onto stage 3!

Work in progress

Making a more useful trampoline is pretty straightforward

Add a couple of helper functi0ns that print out parameters, add some global storage (which in a DLL can be a fussy affair but lets start with simple)


static  char temp_buffer[1024];


void dump_ret_param(unsigned int paramindex, unsigned int count, unsigned int offset)

{

    static  char temp_buffer[1024];

    while (count–) {

        sprintf_s(temp_buffer, sizeof(temp_buffer), "param%d=0x%x, ", paramindex, param[paramindex][offset]);

        OutputDebugStringA(temp_buffer);

        paramindex++;

    }

    OutputDebugStringA("\n");

}

void dump_return(unsigned int offset)

{

    static  char temp_buffer[1024];

    sprintf_s(temp_buffer, sizeof(temp_buffer), "returns=0x%x\n", param[0][offset]);

    OutputDebugStringA(temp_buffer);

}

then we can modify the call like this, we replace the return address back to the caller with our own, so the program flow now goes :-

caller –> trampoline –> original function –> back to end of trampoline –> back to caller

we do this so we can know not only the parameters passed in, but any data returned, in this case EAX, since this is autogenerated code it is somewhat terse

there is an array of arrays for the parameters , upto 20, and an array of return addresses since functions may be called in parallel or from other areas of the dll etc. recursive calls will need something more sophisticated.

extern "C" __declspec(naked) void __E__34__()

{               
     __asm pushad

    __asm pushfd


    // fetch out the return address

    __asm mov eax, [esp + 0x24]

    __asm mov returnAddress[E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ * 4], eax

    // fetch out the passed in parameter and store it in the param array

    __asm {    
        mov         ecx,2                                //param index

         imul        eax,ecx, (E_NUM_PROCS * 4)

        mov         edx, E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ

        mov            ebx, [esp + 0x28]

        mov         dword ptr param[eax + (edx * 4)],ebx

    }

    // overwrite the stack ptrs return address, with our return address becase we want to know what the return value is

    __asm mov eax, jump_E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ

    __asm mov [esp + 0x24],eax

    OutputDebugStringA("int __cdecl MIO_Open(int) ");

    dump_ret_param(0,4,E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ);

    __asm popfd

    __asm popad

    __asm

    {

        jmp procs[E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ*4];

    }

jump_E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ:;

    __asm pushad

    __asm pushfd

    // show the return code from eax

    __asm mov param[E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ * 4], eax

    dump_return(E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ);

    __asm popfd

    __asm popad

    /// back to original caller code

    __asm jmp returnAddress[E_QMIO_OPENAAYAHHAZ * 4]

}

Eakins Camera hackery pokery and the legend of MeasureTwice

After picking up an auto focus Eakins camera for PCB inspection and so on. I adapted my test app MeasureTwice which came from a history of wanting to measure where two holes were for a CNC operation the app grew as they do into my catchall app for inspection work.

I’ve wanted to add an XY table to it so i can capture a PCB or item larger than the view and within the workable ROI of the lense and be sharp, I finally got around to adding the X stage with a stepper on a screw and  track then added a USB control for it, ported in the control code to MT so that it can move the track back and forth.

 

image

Since the camera has autofocus , auto exposure etc. it’s desirable to control them from my MT app so i can fix them before starting a scan.

First things first is to pop open the camera and take a look, there’s a 3 pin connector internally that is a 3.3V Serial port called J50

image

popped out the board, 8 screws, slide out the assembly disconnect the fpc/ffc’s, Soldered in 3 wires (i cut up an old Samsung usb cable since they’re nicely made) added a zip tie as a strain relief

image

image

Serial port J50 looks like this square pad, round, round

[]- RX

O –TX

O – GND

The square pad I’d usually expect to see as ground, but there we go.

image

image

We used the power LED hole to pass the cable back through

image

and remounted the camera

image

Next step is to connect it to a USB 3.3V serial adapter

popping that open at 115Kbaud gives us a u-boot and log of the Linux boot.

U-Boot 2010.06 (Nov 22 2016 – 16:36:06)

NAND:  Check nand flash controller v610. found
Special NAND id table Version 1.36
Nand ID: 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00
No NAND device found!!!
0 MiB
Check spi flash controller v350… Found
Spi(cs1) ID: 0xC2 0x20 0x19 0xC2 0x20 0x19
Spi(cs1): Block:64KB Chip:32MB Name:”MX25L 256/257 35 E/F”
*** Warning – bad CRC, using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
USB:   scanning bus for devices… 2 USB Device(s) found
0 Storage Device(s) found
32768 KiB hi_sfc at 0:0 is now current device

## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 82000000 …
   Image Name:   Linux-3.4.35
   Image Type:   ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)
   Data Size:    2986672 Bytes = 2.8 MiB
   Load Address: 80008000
   Entry Point:  80008000
   Loading Kernel Image … OK
OK

Starting kernel …

Uncompressing Linux… done, booting the kernel.
Booting Linux on physical CPU 0
Linux version 3.4.35 (root@linux-5w9i) (gcc version 4.8.3 20131202 (prerelease) (Hisilicon_v300) ) #2 Fri Jan 13 17:00:54 CST 2017
CPU: ARMv7 Processor [410fc075] revision 5 (ARMv7), cr=10c53c7d
CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT aliasing instruction cache
Machine: hi3516a
Memory policy: ECC disabled, Data cache writeback
Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 32512
Kernel command line: mem=128M console=ttyAMA0,115200 root=/dev/mtdblock2 rootfstype=jffs2 mtdparts=hi_sfc:1M(boot),3M(kernel),26M(rootfs)
PID hash table entries: 512 (order: -1, 2048 bytes)
Dentry cache hash table entries: 16384 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
Inode-cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
Memory: 128MB = 128MB total
Memory: 124028k/124028k available, 7044k reserved, 0K highmem
Virtual kernel memory layout:
    vector  : 0xffff0000 – 0xffff1000   (   4 kB)
    fixmap  : 0xfff00000 – 0xfffe0000   ( 896 kB)
    vmalloc : 0xc8800000 – 0xff000000   ( 872 MB)
    lowmem  : 0xc0000000 – 0xc8000000   ( 128 MB)
    modules : 0xbf000000 – 0xc0000000   (  16 MB)
      .text : 0xc0008000 – 0xc054a000   (5384 kB)
      .init : 0xc054a000 – 0xc056c434   ( 138 kB)
      .data : 0xc056e000 – 0xc059d800   ( 190 kB)
       .bss : 0xc059d824 – 0xc05bc9f8   ( 125 kB)
SLUB: Genslabs=11, HWalign=64, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, Nodes=1
NR_IRQS:128
sched_clock: 32 bits at 49MHz, resolution 20ns, wraps every 86767ms
Console: colour dummy device 80×30
Calibrating delay loop… 1196.85 BogoMIPS (lpj=5984256)
pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
Initializing cgroup subsys freezer
CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
Setting up static identity map for 0x8041e4a8 – 0x8041e500
dummy:
NET: Registered protocol family 16
Serial: AMBA PL011 UART driver
uart:0: ttyAMA0 at MMIO 0x20080000 (irq = 40) is a PL011 rev2
console [ttyAMA0] enabled
uart:1: ttyAMA1 at MMIO 0x20090000 (irq = 41) is a PL011 rev2
bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
SCSI subsystem initialized
hi-spi-master hi-spi-master.0: with 1 chip select slaves attached
hi-spi-master hi-spi-master.1: with 3 chip select slaves attached
usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
usbcore: registered new device driver usb
Switching to clocksource timer0
NET: Registered protocol family 2
IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
TCP established hash table entries: 4096 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
TCP bind hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
TCP: Hash tables configured (established 4096 bind 4096)
TCP: reno registered
UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
NET: Registered protocol family 1
RPC: Registered named UNIX socket transport module.
RPC: Registered udp transport module.
RPC: Registered tcp transport module.
RPC: Registered tcp NFSv4.1 backchannel transport module.
VFS: Disk quotas dquot_6.5.2
Dquot-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order 0, 4096 bytes)
squashfs: version 4.0 (2009/01/31) Phillip Lougher
NFS: Registering the id_resolver key type
jffs2: version 2.2. (NAND) © 2001-2006 Red Hat, Inc.
fuse init (API version 7.18)
SGI XFS with security attributes, large block/inode numbers, no debug enabled
msgmni has been set to 242
Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 254)
io scheduler noop registered
io scheduler deadline registered (default)
io scheduler cfq registered
brd: module loaded
Spi id table Version 1.22
Spi(cs1) ID: 0xC2 0x20 0x19 0xC2 0x20 0x19
SPI nor flash boot mode is 3 Bytes
Spi(cs1):
Block:64KB
Chip:32MB
Name:”MX25L(256/257)35(E/F)”
spi size: 32MB
chip num: 1
3 cmdlinepart partitions found on MTD device hi_sfc
3 cmdlinepart partitions found on MTD device hi_sfc
Creating 3 MTD partitions on “hi_sfc”:
0x000000000000-0x000000100000 : “boot”
0x000000100000-0x000000400000 : “kernel”
0x000000400000-0x000001e00000 : “rootfs”
Found Nand Flash Controller V610.
Nand ID: 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00
No NAND device found
Higmac dma_sg_phy: 0x87a00000
higmac_mdio_bus: probed
PHY mdio0:01 not found
ETH0: rgmii, phy_addr=1, mii_name=mdio0
ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 ‘Enhanced’ Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
hiusb-ehci hiusb-ehci.0: HIUSB EHCI
hiusb-ehci hiusb-ehci.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1
hiusb-ehci hiusb-ehci.0: irq 53, io mem 0x100b0000
hiusb-ehci hiusb-ehci.0: USB 0.0 started, EHCI 1.00
hub 1-0:1.0: USB hub found
hub 1-0:1.0: 1 port detected
ohci_hcd: USB 1.1 ‘Open’ Host Controller (OHCI) Driver
hiusb-ohci hiusb-ohci.0: HIUSB OHCI
hiusb-ohci hiusb-ohci.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 2
hiusb-ohci hiusb-ohci.0: irq 54, io mem 0x100a0000
hub 2-0:1.0: USB hub found
hub 2-0:1.0: 1 port detected
Initializing USB Mass Storage driver…
usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
USB Mass Storage support registered.
mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
i2c /dev entries driver
hisi_i2c hisi_i2c.0: Hisilicon [i2c-0] probed!
hisi_i2c hisi_i2c.1: Hisilicon [i2c-1] probed!
hisi_i2c hisi_i2c.2: Hisilicon [i2c-2] probed!
usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
usbhid: USB HID core driver
TCP: cubic registered
Initializing XFRM netlink socket
NET: Registered protocol family 17
NET: Registered protocol family 15
lib80211: common routines for IEEE802.11 drivers
Registering the dns_resolver key type
VFP support v0.3: implementor 41 architecture 2 part 30 variant 7 rev 5
mmc0: new high speed SDXC card at address aaaa
mmcblk0: mmc0:aaaa SE64G 59.4 GiB
mmcblk0: p1
VFS: Mounted root (jffs2 filesystem) on device 31:2.
Freeing init memory: 136K
usb 2-1: new low-speed USB device number 2 using hiusb-ohci
input: Dell Dell USB Optical Mouse as /devices/platform/hiusb-ohci.0/usb2/2-1/2-1:1.0/input/input0
generic-usb 0003:413C:3012.0001: input: USB HID v1.11 Mouse [Dell Dell USB Optical Mouse] on usb-hiusb-ohci-1/input0
[RCS]: /etc/init.d/S00devs
[RCS]: /etc/init.d/S01udev
Not recognise ACTION:change
Not recognise ACTION:change
Not recognise ACTION:change
[RCS]: /etc/init.d/S80network
[RCS]: /etc/init.d/S90hibernate
Password for ‘root’ changed
Auto login as root …
Jan  1 00:00:02 login[905]: root login on ‘ttyS000’

Welcome to HiLinux.
None of nfsroot found in cmdline.
His3516a_LoadDrivers Start…..!
~ # Hisilicon Media Memory Zone Manager
Module himedia: init ok
hi3516a_base: module license ‘Proprietary’ taints kernel.
Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
load sys.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
load tde.ko …OK!
load region.ko ….OK!
load vgs.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
ISP Mod init!
load viu.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
load vpss.ko ….OK!
load vou.ko ….OK!
load hifb.ko OK!
load rc.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
load venc.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
load chnl.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
load h264e.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
load h265e.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
load jpege.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
load vda.ko ….OK!
load ive.ko for Hi3516A…OK!
hi3516a_io driver init start
hi3516a_io driver init successful!
af pi level:0
af move steps:330
af move steps:320 10
insmod: can’t insert ‘/komod/extdrv/wdt.ko’: No such file or directory
*** Board tools : ver0.0.1_20121120 ***
[debug]: {source/utils/cmdshell.c:166}cmdstr:himm
0x200f0050: 0x00000000 –> 0x00000001
[END]
*** Board tools : ver0.0.1_20121120 ***
[debug]: {source/utils/cmdshell.c:166}cmdstr:himm
0x200f0054: 0x00000000 –> 0x00000001
[END]
*** Board tools : ver0.0.1_20121120 ***
[debug]: {source/utils/cmdshell.c:166}cmdstr:himm
0x200f0058: 0x00000000 –> 0x00000001
[END]
*** Board tools : ver0.0.1_20121120 ***
[debug]: {source/utils/cmdshell.c:166}cmdstr:himm
0x200f005c: 0x00000000 –> 0x00000001
[END]
*** Board tools : ver0.0.1_20121120 ***
[debug]: {source/utils/cmdshell.c:166}cmdstr:himm
0x2003002c: 0x00090007 –> 0x00090007
[END]
mipi_init
init phy power successful!
load hi_mipi driver successful!
hi3516a_io driver init start
His3516a_LoadDrivers Finish…..!
***COPYRIGHT 2016 tagye technology****
software:v2.3.1
DATE:Nov  1 2018,TIME:16:36:05
************************************
linear mode
–IMX290 1080P 60fps LINE Init OK!—-
Entering the cmos_fps_set!
vout start finish
Entering the cmos_fps_set!
open success:fd0 ===== 3
FBIOPUT_VSCREENINFO over !!!
hi_i2c_wait_txfifo_notfull->260:
transmit error, int_raw_status: 0x750!

hi_i2c_wait_txfifo_notfull->262:
tx_abrt_cause is 1.

we can see the camera sensor model, iMX290 and the hi3516a processor, the tagye tech guys seem to have a patent on microscope digital zooming so they may supply the software.

no root password needed, though in the /mm.sh script it changes the password for root at every boot

#!/bin/sh

#ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.247
#mount -t nfs -o nolock -o tcp 192.168.1.100:/nfs  /mnt

echo “root:tagye1207” | chpasswd

ulimit -c 9999
ulimit -c 9999

mount -t vfat /dev/mmcblk0p1  /mnt/sdcard

export HOME=’/root’
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=’/usr/local/lib:/usr/lib:/qt_lib’
export LOGNAME=’root’
export OLDPWD=’/qt_lib’
export PATH=’/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/sbin’
export PWD=’/opt’
export QT_PLUGIN_PATH=’/qt_lib/plugins’
export QT_QWS_FONTDIR=’/qt_lib/fonts’
export QWS_DISPLAY=’LinuxFb:/dev/fb0′
export TERM=’vt100′
export USER=’root’

/opt/3516a_proc &
/opt/myTest_8.17 -qws -fn DejaVuSans.ttf &

so now there is a shell, there isn’t a lot going on there are two apps running one is handling the im290 setup and auto focus, the other handles the gui for the mouse. unfortunately there are no network usb driver .ko’s so sticking with serial at the moment.

the dev board for the 3516 has a gmac on it, so that is likely what the dev is using with the commented out ifconfig


/opt/3516a_proc &
/opt/myTest_8.17 -qws -fn DejaVuSans.ttf &

i pop on a arm7l version of  strace and  can now see the myTest app talking to a local socket at /tmp/UNIX.domain and /tmp/UNIX.domain1

connect(15, {sa_family=AF_LOCAL, sun_path=”/tmp/UNIX.domain1″}, 110) = 0
connect(16, {sa_family=AF_LOCAL, sun_path=”/tmp/UNIX.domain”}, 110) = 0

clicking buttons shows a write to socket 16, /tmp/UNIX.domain

write(16, “\7\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100
write(16, “\7\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100

write(16, “\5\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100
write(16, “\5\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100

 

3516a_proc is the one that controls the camera which looks like via i2c , the other mrTest is a QT app that does the overlay and then communicates with the 3516 app  with an AF_LOCAL IPC socket.

so instead of going back and forth with a fiddly sdcard, i grabbed lrsrz source code setup an ARM7L cross compiler on a lightsail instance and built it, transferred it to the sdcard and booted up the camera, now i can just use TeraTerm to ZMODEM upload over the serial console.

/mnt/sdcard # lrz -b -Z –c -y
lrz waiting to receive.**B0100000023be50

binary, zmodem with checksum and overwrite(clobber)

it is now slightly less of a hassle to transfer files to and from the camera, building the .ko for a usb ethernet adapter I’ll tackle later

pop up the camera UI set AF mode

image

from the strace before i believe \7 is the MF command

next is a very quick test app

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/un.h>

#define SOCK_CLOEXEC 02000000UL

int main()
{
        struct sockaddr_un tolog;
        int sock = socket(AF_LOCAL, SOCK_STREAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC, 0);
        tolog.sun_family = AF_UNIX;
        strcpy(tolog.sun_path, “/tmp/UNIX.domain”);
        connect(sock, (struct sockaddr*)&tolog, sizeof(struct sockaddr_un));
        write(sock,”\7\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″,100);
        close(sock);
        return 0;
}

compile it, pass it over to the serial app vi lxz and ,kill the mYtest app, then run our test app

socket(PF_LOCAL, SOCK_STREAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC, 0) = 3
connect(3, {sa_family=AF_LOCAL, sun_path=”/tmp/UNIX.domain”}, 110) = 0
write(3, “\7\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100
close(3)                                = 0
exit_group(-1093076012)                 = ?

re-run the myTest app

/opt/myTest_8.17 -qws -fn DejaVuSans.ttf

make sure you set the exports from the /mm.sh script first or the app will complain.

image

and it has changed to manual focus mode, neat!

ok lets double check with something else

image

might as well try to change it to B&W mode, so lets strace the command

this seems like a good candidate

write(16, “\36\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100

next to modify the test app (add \36 to the start of the buffer, compile, upload,and strace it

socket(PF_LOCAL, SOCK_STREAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC, 0) = 3
connect(3, {sa_family=AF_LOCAL, sun_path=”/tmp/UNIX.domain”}, 110) = 0
write(3, “\36\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100
close(3)                                = 0
exit_group(-1091580860)                 = ?

and yup it switches to B&W mode

image

ok so it seems like we’re going the right way so far. not everything in the GUI works like this I don’t believe, but if i can get AE/MF up and down focus control, and AE off and on it’ll be a good start. if its all just one or two bytes to set modes, it’d be trivial to adapt the app to just pass in the command on the argv and poke at it.

Leaving the myTest app running there is no problem with multiple applications talking to that local IPC socket, other than if you manage to write multiple things at once that conflict and the GUI will get  out of sync if you change things programmatically that are toggles, since the GUI is unaware of what you did.


next step is to catalogue the commands, then later start looking at the main application.

and on to add more features to the always growing MeasureTwice app…

Sometimes i’ll add the strace, others just the first byte

(these are out of date now use the github link https://github.com/charlie-x/eakins-camera )

Auto Focus

write(16, “\5\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100

Click focus

\6

Manual Focus

write(16, “\7\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100

B&W on

\36

ROI Set

write(15, “\24\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100 <0.000826>

AWB

write(15, “\f\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100 <0.006507>

MWB

write(15, “\16\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100 <0.001343>

click Capture

write(15, “\4\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100 <0.000385>

Flip

write(15, “\31\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100 <0.000899>

Mirror

write(15, “\32\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100 <0.000908>

Clicking HDR

write(15, “\23\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0″…, 100) = 100 <0.001058>

Sliding MF slider in MF mode, so write \10and then a position ( i changed strace to dump in hex here)

write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xeb\xff\xff\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002519>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xf0\xff\xff\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.007700>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xf4\xff\xff\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.007004>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002271>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.008654>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x06\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002378>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x0b\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.003269>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x0f\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002288>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x14\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002283>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x1d\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002493>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x21\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.006618>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x31\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002643>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x3a\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.015587>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x40\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002530>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x4e\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002634>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x54\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002608>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x57\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002951>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x5b\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.003195>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x64\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.007897>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x6d\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.010341>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x72\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002574>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x7f\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002904>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x83\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.027182>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x88\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002345>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x8c\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.007582>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x91\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.005741>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x9a\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002418>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xac\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002833>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xbb\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.014942>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xdf\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.116899>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xea\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002403>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xfa\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.010266>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.014076>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x0c\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002584>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x0e\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.024927>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x12\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.007165>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x24\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002472>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x46\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.120134>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x4f\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.002780>
write(15, “\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x77\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.105966>

clicking 50/60Hz

Entering the cmos_fps_set!
write(15, “\x1b\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00″…, 100) = 100 <0.000859>

A bit of the old Heath Robinson going on but its a start,  also planning to add a Y stage.

image

If you wanted to rewrite the GUI app its just doing the above with a straight up  /dev/fb0 and QT and then overlaying the crosshairs etc.

/dev/fb0 is a hardware overlay over the cameras sensor, copying urandom onto /dev/fb0 , moving mouse around erases the fb0, but the background stays regardless

image

now that i can control the camera i can do a focus stack capture, which just means controlling the focus of the camera either by mocing it up and down or by moving the AF motor, so lets do that.

first figure out the range that the object is in focus at near and far plane. in my case 140 to 155

step from 140 to 155 and capture image each step.

serial in to the shell, add the talk app , insert an sd-card

for var in `seq 140 155`; do ./talk p $var ; ./talk C ; done

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tRmd8nV61Ds&feature=youtu.be

quick focus stack result with 15 steps
from

some results

camera view

after focus stack

before/after





test apps and source at

https://github.com/charlie-x/eakins-camera

Created a .ko for the r8152 USB to ethernet adapter, and it works.

/mnt/sdcard # insmod ./r8152.ko
usbcore: registered new interface driver r8152
/mnt/sdcard #
/mnt/sdcard # usb 1-1: reset high-speed USB device number 3 using hiusb-ehci
r8152 1-1:1.0: eth0: v2.12.0 (2019/04/29)
r8152 1-1:1.0: eth0: This product is covered by one or more of the following patents:
                US6,570,884, US6,115,776, and US6,327,625.

 

/mnt/sdcard # ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 70:88:6B:86:3F:97
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:16 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:1540 (1.5 KiB)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

 

ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.160 netmask 255.255.255.0

 

/mnt/sdcard # ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 70:88:6B:86:3F:97
          inet addr:192.168.1.160  Bcast:192.168.1.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:135 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
           RX bytes:12590 (12.2 KiB)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

 

[C:\Program Files\JPSoft\TCMD17x64]ping 192.168.1.160

 

Pinging 192.168.1.160 with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.168.1.160: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=64
Reply from 192.168.1.160: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=64

image

Just started to add an Eagle BRD overlay, load the BRD in and it’ll draw the tracks/vias etc.

image_thumb.png

 

Using VNA/J, MicroVNA Tiny and Megiq VNA

Great series on VNA Videos

This entry is partly so when I come back to this later, i’ll remember the steps! Using a MicroVNA with VNA/j and then transferring it via  touchstone(s2p) file to other software.

Run a scan in VNA/J

image

Smith Chart

image

Export S-Parameter collector

image

Choose S11 on left side, and save it to the S2P FIle

image

MeqiQ VNA software

https://www.megiq.com/resources/downloads

I had a few issues with this software on resizing to full screen, and a popup error, close the popup and resize it

Install, Load and right click in Measurement window

image

Verify looks ok

image

Click in Display tab

image

image

Click S11, Add graph

image

Choose Type and click OK

And there it is

image

Click on points o chart to match, right click over the points and select Match circuit

image

image

Select Match

image

light.co L16 camera, fixing the lumen software

 

i picked up one of those L16 cameras from light.co  it arrived last week , charged it, plugged it in and installed the windows version of the lumen(beta) software.

took a few pictures, downloaded them  and clicked to open, and the software crashed, over and over. Opened a support “email/website” to their “award winning support” waited a few days, nothing, submitted again, still nothing, so since i’d like to see what the camera did i figured i’d take a look and see what was causing the crash..

i’d taken a few different pics over the days, but could only download them and not view them.

so this is what it did, clicking view always crashed it.

 

since it’s the 5th, i got the camera mid last week and wanted to see the results, and still nada from their support.

i clicked ‘Debug’, which opened up my visual studio, then took a look at the a crash, it is in the ceres solver, invalid instruction, so i see where this is going and i take a look at the disassembly and sure enough it is AVX(sandy bridge)  instruction which my older i7 CPU doesn’t support (contrary to the claims of the light.co website)

Ceres Solver is an open source library

http://ceres-solver.org/

i took a look at their version, a quick strings in the ceres.dll

c:\Users\srv-build\jenkins\workspace\CI-multi-platform-v2\CI_Projects\CI-WIN\3rdparty\ceres-solver-1.12.0\internal\ceres\trust_region_preprocessor.cc

the code is here

http://ceres-solver.org/installation.html

but since i’m using the windows version i grabbed this build,  (using submodules to get glog)

https://github.com/tbennun/ceres-windows

it needs Eigen

 http://eigen.tuxfamily.org/index.php?title=Main_Page

grabbed 3.3.4 of Eigen, extracted it to the same folder as the ceres-2015.sln file  and then renamed it to eigen

next opened the ceres-2015.sln in visual studio 2015, selected release and x64 build, built it and copied the ceres.dll to the lumen.exe folder.  after making a backup of the old non working one.

re ran it , opened the files again, and picked a picture, tested the focus .. and it worked.

and now i can view the images for the camera

the software is really, really slow, so i’d imagine they just switched on whatever optimisation settings they could without realising what that really meant, dat jenkins build server.

as for the camera itself, sorry to say but so far the software is indicative of the hardware, but i probably need some time to get used to it.

 

now i wonder where my award is

cheers,

 

 

 

 

since its being asked for, https://github.com/charlie-x/lumen-ceres-dll i put it here. its built exactly as i described it above

Reusing the RPM indicator

i wanted an rpm indicator on the mill, i have a handheld one but since it had one originally i thought why not use it.

since we’re on a vfd don’t need this lot anymore
apply bandsaw


i’m using a 12VDC wall wart to power it. you can use the old 120V if you want, just chop it off at the other side of the transformer or use the whole board.
Remove D1 (this converts the 12VAC from the transformer to 12VDC, you could cut all the way past L1, but this way you get reverse polarity diode protection and some filtering/smoothing.

attach a power plug.

add 12VDC

tadah!
now i just have to find where i put the optical pickup….

Inverter duty motor arrives

Just delivered, new motor arrived, this one is an inverter duty rated motor, that means spin it at 100 RPM and you won’t be able to stop it by hand, or at least that is the idea. The GP motor you can stall easily with one hand, it is fine when the VFD frequency is above 30%, below that it’ll struggle.

This is an eBay special so lets see if its working, keyway is there so that is a good sign. mmca will likely have to lathe a new pulley.

Uses a 145TC mount so it should just fit into the 56C I made a few weeks ago. The big difference is this motor is 22kilos/50lbs, which is more than double the GP motor, and around 8x the original weight.

Spent more time making new parts, than upgrading the machine

More of a blog entry than a project one.

Sort of a milestone this weekend, we actually spent time making parts for a robot we’re trying to get ready before the end of the month. For a short while it was even like a normal CNC shop where we are popping stock on, cutting it, and repeating.

One thing that happened was during cutting and such, the power went out, on a couple of circuits in the house for a brief moment, no breakers tripped, computers reset (added a ups to the computer+cnc controller) and hte cnc controller had a few disconnects, which has never happened before the VFD/drive update, funny that huh?

Of course we need a lot of things to sit between the power from the house (and apparently its a requirement from the power company according to internets) and other things to sit between the VFD + motor. VFD’s generate a lot of noise/EMI/F and in general do bad things to power, but do awesome things with motors like spin it at 2hZ magic !?!

So we have inline fuses, EMI line filters, zero phase reactor, which is a cool name for an RF filter which helps with current spikes and bad harmonics being introduced to the motor, helping it run cooler and last longer. also line reactors lcvette on cnczone made a nice list, which i found of course after we saw the issues.

http://www.automationdirect.com/adc/Overview/Catalog/Drives/AC_Drive_(VFD)_Spare_Parts_-a-_Accessories/AC_Line_Reactors

Adding all that stuff should keep the rest of the equipment running without being spiked, its already bad enough we’re running CNC machines via USB but that is another issue altogether ( also usb is in general just terrible )

Next we ran into issues with the general purpose motor, which was expected since a general purpose motor can’t deliver the torque at low RPM’s with VFD control, you need an inverter duty motor which can do all sorts of fancy things, normally they’re about double the cost, but ebay always seems to have a stock of them, i like the marathon black maxes,, it is 50lbs. vs the 25lbs of the current motor. and it’s 1.5 HP however we need low RPM’s for drilling etc, once you go below about 31 hZ on the VFD the torque drops off dramatically.

Luckily a 145TC mount should fit into a 56C mount , different shaft size so a new pulley anyway, its a 1800 RPM vs 3600 RPM but we should be able to overspeed it 2x, and also a larger pulley , 4" is the current thinking.

we’ll put the 1HP motor on another machine, so it won’t go to waste.

The motor probably won’t arrive til next week, so we’ll have to brave on with the "oh look i can stop it with my hand at <1000 RPM" motor. On that note, does anyone else worry about VFD control that uses a membrane keypad to start the motor versus a nice e-stop style switch, you think a lot about these things while trying to remove a 3" face mill which someone put 20 lbs of torque on.

You can wire up a 24V style run/stop switch to the VFD but since its a digital input around a lot of noise (albeit 24V) it still makes me think about a disconnecting switch. I’m sure its completely fine though in a few weeks expect a , and yes i have less fingers and a giant hole in my hand now update.

So far the VFD has been great, you lose the pot to set the speed on the GS3 vs the GS2 so its an up/down and a bit of a chorse, so adding an RS485 to USB(sigh) so the super fancy FlashCUT PRO 8A Stepper control can control it you say, well no turns out the $3000 or so can’t handle 24V, IO, not can it talk to a VFD directly, and no 0-10V , the plethora of Mach3/4 controllers for about $150-$500 do support it. To be completely fair there is an add board (or two) that you can install inside the PRO series FlashCUT, but i’m betting its at least $500 to add which is outrageous and their jog controller is still a crappy USB pad that adds yet more latency to the system, it’s still pretty much a closed system with no cool scripting, so i’m feeling a move to Mach4 coming on. I hadn’t considered it because I like the backlash compensation, turns out Mach3/4 supports that. As far as i know there are no open source CNC controllers with backlash compensation, its really useful because you can do this sort of thing

A fit bearing directly off the machine, with no boring bar just an end mill. this is really hard to do on lead screws, and on C7 ballscrews still hard on a hobby level CNC, since backlash. Backlash is the amount of movement the axis motor has to make when reversing direction to physically move the head, its like slack , you know like when you move your steering wheel back and forth and theres some give on the rack/pinion before it engages, similar thing. backlash compensation knows about that slack which is fairly constant and computes where to add it on so it knows to move a little bit extra when changing directions.

Circles are one of the worst cases for a machine with backlash, i’ve covered it before and shown results which on the leadscrew/base FlashCUT were awful, they’re barely what you could call circles and now we’re end milling, deburring the edge and dropping bearings in.. just like that, thats because of backlash compensation, sure you can try, and you should, to remove mechanical backlash as much as possible, but even a mori seki/hass has backlash compensation, they even have pitch correction etc, since a ballscrew might not be entirely linear movement and there will be spots where one rotation doesn’t move as far as in another spot.

Circles are bad since they have a lot of axis reversals during the cut, we’d improved it no end before. This time though we started in on the smoothing and acceleration curves of the motor control. Setting how fast it would accelerate . This also helps with cutting as well as it allows smoother transitions between GCODE operations and allows them to calculate say a single axis line move + an arc into one smooth movement with no pauses. Think of it like driving again take the track, the difference between you knowing the layout of a blind corner and never having seen it, with the known corner you transition from the straight into the curve, hitting the apex, having reached corner speed at entry, and then smoothly powering out of the corner into the straight, much smoother. If you don’t know anything about where you’re going,, you would generally approach slower, not take a smooth line and lots of corrections, then not be the right speed for leaving the corner, its slower, and less optimum and possibly loss of some rubber and nerves. backlash compensation+accelerating profiles = knowing where you’re going. I see lots of the projects saying its not needed, or low priority, but it is very useful to get the machine producing better results. its a shopping trip to walmart vs a lotus exige at buttonwillow.

Different types of CNC’s with belts and so on have lower backlash, but belts stretch, so there is always something. Sure its arguable that lead screws are so bad that its not worth it, but it does make a huge difference.

We also started to build the Y extension for the table, its 5 holes.. I could have drill pressed it…

Faced it off to make both sides parallel, using custom soft jaws to hold it. we could face mill at 12IPM , and were cutting at 0.05" which is so much better than the old motor.

here is a finishing pass. very dull to watch, but surface quality is great.

and then drilling the holes, we ran into some more issues here, i added my own flood coolant device and lots of air, the issue was these holes are really deep at 2.5" so the chips built up in the third hole and they weren’t clearing so we broke the 3" carbide end mill, only one too so i finished it up on the drill press. This ended up being a 5 hour process, the above bearing cut only took 30 minutes… strange how that goes.

and here is a video of us , not using my awesome flood coolant system and an almost entire bottle of WD40, we’re still working on the source of that squawky metallic noise on the opposing corners, could be spindle misaligned, bearings, tool chatter, harmonics, spice girls, space radiation etc.

not ooo much interesting going on except, omg that noise.

you’d think surface quality would be altered significantly, but not really. anyway that is it for now, i’m missing the pictures of the 8 other parts we made that same day, since in the words of AvE it was chooching along. Next week, add extension cable to VFD, add filters, install RS485 link, maybe a new motor install, and finish robot (most people are just building the robot, we’re still making the machine to make the robot)

Oh and our awesome little harbor freight horizontal saw snapped its blade after many hours of cutting, popped a new one and off it went, still our favourite little workhorse, mmca even cut some 6061 stock on the hitachi 12" chop saw with a wood blade.

Motor mounts, motor mounting and testing.

Got back from CES all ready to mount the new as yet to be tested motor.

First the intro video… yes more upbeat music from googles expansive library of music.

head spacer ready to mount

this is where it mounts to on the machine

the centre bolt is M12 adding on about 2.5" inches to the original, ended up about 6".

like so

then the other side of the spacer connects to here.

underneath on the head where the bolts come in there was some flashing that made it hard to insert the long bolt, so i ground it away.

mounted it to the head and bolted it down so we can centre punch holes for the two m4 bolts we’ve added .

using a tap guide and drilling out the cast for the new holes. cast iron is messy to work with, its a good idea to keep cleaning it up and keep it away from any moving parts, motors, ways etc.

removing the Z column bearing/motor mount

removing the motor speed controller, off switch f/r box etc. we don’t need this anymore since its a VFD now, though i wanted to keep the RPM part.

mounted the head onto the spacer

bolted it up and its done for now, this is a temp piece while we decide if we want to go to a steel spacer. we need this to fit the motor, though it hurts our Y travel til we extend the bed.

The side rails we did last week.

these need to be pocket out for clearance for the pan head bolts that are on the motor plate.

the motors been arcing quite badly in the last few weeks, we’re hoping it lasts for these few cuts.

cutting down some bolts to fit the Head extension

the bolts needs to have a T shape so they wont spin in the head mount. so grinder again.

test mount, the clearance at the back is off , it ends up looking like a green latern symbol , the more we see the motor on here, the less it seems oversized.

we have to drill and tap holes in the side of the cast to mount the plates.

after a test mount we realised the blocks were too long, so had to cut off a bit from the ends, after they’d been nicely CNC’d luckily this is the mill cut side. harbor freight horizontal bandsaw again

marking out the area to remove from the back to stop the Z motor square hitting it. the white is a marker that doesn’t get easily removed as sharpie.

motor isn’t that big!

next is to punch , drill and tap the holes in the cast

new bolts added, they’re M6 20mm

also added on the two blocks per side, the motor plate attaches to these.

more tapping

and its mounted

we’ve been having some issues with the tormach TTS pulling down during cutting, you can see the results of that on the back left of the plate. A PDF on tormach’s website says its because its not clean, so we’ll try that. http://www.tormach.com/uploads/163/TD31090_ToolHolding-pdf.html

mounted the motor plate marking the holes to drill in the top. M6’s again

after its bolted up i wanted to test the clearance. hand drill works great.

the top of the motor fan cover would have clipped it, so chopped off the edge of the aluminium channel.

all mounted, drilled and tapped. time to see if the stepper can move the all the new weight.

we stopped at 100IPM not bad, no point going faster.

time to wire the motor

we’re using 240V so tie both sides together l1/l2/l3, connect all the INS (t4/t5/t6) to themselves and insulate(thats what INS means)

the motor plate shows the wiring. we then used wire nuts + extension coord + ground to run to the VFD.

running the 220V, i used a dryer cable which is massively overkill, ended up wire nuts + smaller gauge wire to feed into the VFD

knotty!

i’d added the breaker box and outlet previously, so just need to be plugged in, again massive overkill.

and fire up the motor! (now at this point there is something we should have checked and didn’t) you might spot it..

VFD wiring, dead simple two hots + ground to the 220V outlet, and then three phases to the motor + ground to the machine. the order is important.

ahem, i’ll explain later… also brake is for a resistor to help slow the motor

This is a GS2 which isn’t a sensorless vector, which we didn’t realise, it was the one recommended by Automation Direct, and its perfectly fine however we wanted the sensorless +auto tune etc, so i emailed the people at AD and say we just wired it up , did a couple of test cuts/runs and realised, so can we upgrade to the GS3. To be honest i was expecting them to tell me where to go and was preparing to say to the wife, not only do we want to go to a bigger motor but we might have to buy a second VFD since the first is potentially the wrong one.

However AD emailed me back in the morning with a return slip and said just pay for the GS3-22PO , and we’ll refund after getting the GS2 back. They’ve always been super helpful but i’m real happy about this, luckily for once i saved the packaging and box ( since AD included a note saying so) normally i’m usually we’ll figure out another use for it.

So they’re sending me out a GS3 tonight and we’ll wire it up this weekend, next is an inverter duty motor upgrade, probably 1.5HP is the sweet spot… thank you Automation Direct.. The advice they gave me for the GS2+1HP motor is perfectly fine, we just want the fancy features, it is about $40 more.

Now there is a couple of videos missing of the first cut, i hope its on my gopro since we decided lets put 1HP into the CAM software and see what happens, 28IPM for a .250" end mill with 0.76" DOC is what happened, so we set it up , put on some test material and did some facing with a face mill, no low speed torque, doesn’t cut for toffee. oh well (and this is where we start discussing the sensorless GS3)

mounted up the .250" bit and tried the new hole, nope , doesn’t cut the material, horrible noises and the motor stalls.. ok half the speed, try again, same thing gets about 1mm into the aluminium, damn .. ok half the speed again, this time regen the CAM , using the math at .37HP ends up at 11 IPM which is about where we cut at with the old motor…. nope still won’t cut, stalls noisy etc… motor is about 3 times bigger, and less capable ? WTFMATE?

I start looking up new inverter duty motors since we’ve got it it in our head about that constant torque ratio, since we’re running about 40% of the motors frequency, we’re convincing ourselves somethings wrong in the setup.

I email A.D. about swapping to a GS3. I find a motor they’re all 145TC146 mounts so start CADing, but this time its about 00:30am on Monday morning and we think ok lets pack it in and head home, on the way out of the door , bag in hand, mmca says haha did we check the spindle is spinning the right way, we look and laugh of course it must be.. .then we start to get that dawning moment, surely not… quick switch it all back on and test,….. and yes the motor is spinning the WRONG way, so we’re basically end-milling by scraping the material..

Ok, swap two of the motor phase wires (T2/T1), bring up the CAM at 11IPM, cuts like butter… 22IPM, same, 28IPM cutting but its chattering, pretty good really since we didn’t expect the machine to handle 28IPM. we notice the TTS is slipping again so abort the cut. But turns out the 1HP general purpose motor is doing just fine so far….

i’ll dig up the scrapping video when i get home. Also note the T1 and T2 are swapped on the motor connecting on the VFD in the second picture above. that is correct T2/T1/T3 from the motor.

til next week!. And thanks again Paula from Automation Direct.