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  • charliex 4:44 pm on September 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    Using VNA/J, MicroVNA Tiny and Megiq VNA 

    Great series on VNA Videos

    This entry is partly so when I come back to this later, i’ll remember the steps! Using a MicroVNA with VNA/j and then transferring it via  touchstone(s2p) file to other software.

    Run a scan in VNA/J

    image

    Smith Chart

    image

    Export S-Parameter collector

    image

    Choose S11 on left side, and save it to the S2P FIle

    image

    MeqiQ VNA software

    https://www.megiq.com/resources/downloads

    I had a few issues with this software on resizing to full screen, and a popup error, close the popup and resize it

    Install, Load and right click in Measurement window

    image

    Verify looks ok

    image

    Click in Display tab

    image

    image

    Click S11, Add graph

    image

    Choose Type and click OK

    And there it is

    image

    Click on points o chart to match, right click over the points and select Match circuit

    image

    image

    Select Match

    image

     
  • charliex 11:35 pm on January 31, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: neoden, neoden 4,   

    Neoden 4 Pick and Place 

    Overview

    This is a long post.

    We replaced out Neoden TM220A with a Neoden 4, it has worked well for us but there was a couple of things I wanted to change in the software. Like the machine moves over the pulled tape with parts and sometimes the tape gets in the way. maybe some changes to the vision algorithms.

    So where to begin.

    The easy one; if you use Eagle and want a slightly better experience https://github.com/charlie-x/neoden4 use my ULP, if you don’t use Eagle the various formats are documented inside that ULP

    The Neoden4 is a Windows XP box that is locked down a little bit, ctrl alt delete gets you to the Chinese task manager, select the  the lower middle button, then select the run menu and run CMD or explorer.

    image

    It has a C: Write cache protection, anything you write to the C: drive goes into a cache file that is located on the root of drive C: so if you mod the registry or such, and reboot the changes will be gone.

    To get rid of it, boot XP in safe mode, then run

    KYSYSProtectApp.exe

    image

    It’ll look better on the machine. click the lower right button down and this will remove the KYSysProtect.sys driver, using the first button will re-enable it.

    [INSTALL]                     [CANCEL]

    [OPEN]

    [SHUTDOWN]

    [UNINSTALL]

    image

    Then you can pop in the registry editor regedit.exe . Change shell from start.bat to explorer.exe

    Reboot and you should see explorer, the D:\Neoden4\ folder contains the startup executable. Now you can add a usb to wifi or wired adapter and setup networking.

    Either of these will work  and have XP drivers

    https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00ET4KHJ2/

    https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00762YNMG/

    Notes

    The run csv files are stored in D:\Neoden\proc folder

    The footprints are stored inside the config folder as pkg.csv

    0402,1.00,0.50,0.50,

    0603,1.60,0.80,0.50,

    0805,2.00,1.20,0.50,

    1206,3.20,1.60,0.50,

    1210,3.20,2.50,0.50,

    1812,4.50,3.20,0.50,

    config.ini contains all the preset positions of the feeders, etc they’re often in QT variant format but QT supports either

    [Default]

    bLighting=false

    nRunSpeed=100

    nVibFreq=100

    nVibCurrent=30

    fAngleCamLookUp=@Variant(\0\0\0\x87?\x99\x99\x9a)

    fBrightness=@Variant(\0\0\0\x87@\0\0\0)

    [Stack]

    lstStack0.pos.x=410.223266601562

    lstStack0.pos.y=88.2767715454102

    lstStack0.nFeedId=1

    lstStack0.nPeelId=1

    or

    [Stack]

    lstStack0.pos.x=@Variant(\0\0\0\x87\x43\xcd\x1c\x94)

    lstStack0.pos.y=@Variant(\0\0\0\x87\x42\xb0\x8d\xb5)

    lstStack0.nFeedId=1

    lstStack0.nPeelId=1

    Either is valid

    Setting.ini has the language and hashed serial number of your machines MAC address if this doesn’t match it’ll default to chinese

    [Serial]

    Language=78798069

    [System]

    Language=eng

    If you don’t turn off ksysprotect the only changes you make that will stay after a reboot will be on the D:\ drive.

    The update installed is a .cab file renamed to .neoden and the start.bat script looks for it on the USB drive and will extract it into the D:\Neoden4 folder at boot time.

    @echo off

    if not exist D:/NeoDen4/v4.1.3.9_1d6d860d134a44232ea1b42c0bc11e52.neoden goto run

    expand D:/NeoDen4/v4.1.3.9_1d6d860d134a44232ea1b42c0bc11e52.neoden -F:* ./

    del v4.1.3.9_1d6d860d134a44232ea1b42c0bc11e52.neoden

    :run

    start NeoDen4.exe

    Exit

    The shutdown button in the neoden software just shells out to the cmd processor and the shutdown command, this is pretty typical for these sorts of machines.

    If you switch the XP language to English, it will likely no longer boot the needed files are missing even if you add the language pack, better to reinstall.

    The ID for the Chinese/English switch is based on the first network MAC address the machine finds. If it appears in Chinese and was English, then either the config file was changed or the first MAC address did

    Drivers for the cameras are on my github for 7×64 and 10 x64 , probably 8 too , Be aware since after years of people beating on Windows for the fault of bad drivers MS has stepped up the driver policy on 10 and you need to generate and resign the CAB as well the INF otherwise you’ll have to disable secure boot and/or driver enforcement to load modified drivers.

    Better translations

    On the whole the translations are fine, but there were some things that bugged me and used up valuable screen space. Like the Feeder column Lists Feeder 1, Feeder 2 etc, leaving less space for what is in the column that you really want to see. So just changing it in the QM file, the app uses QT 5.3.1 extract it to a C:\QM folder

    The translations are stored in the Neoden.qm file which is a compiled XML/TS translation file.

    QT Linguist can open QM files, you just need to change the filter in the open, but i used the command line tool instead.

    C:\Qt\QT5.3.1\5.3\mingw482_32\bin\lconvert.exe Neoden4.qm -o Neoden4.ts

    This will convert the binary .qm to an XML file. If you open it up you’ll see the translations like th

    <message>
            <source>55å·æ–™æ ˆ</source>
           <translation>Feeder 55</translation>

    </message>

    <message>    <source>å☼-åo^</source>
            <translation>Outer</translation>

    < /message>


    The source is the Chinese, which doesn’t show up here and translation is the English version. So next changed all the relevant Feeder messages to > </ as if it were removed altogether and didn’t leave a single space the Chinese translation would appear instead

    <message>     
            <source>æ-╪件</source>
            <translation>File</translation>

    </message>

    <message>
            <source>æ-Tæ ^</source>
            <translation> </translation>

    < /message>

    To convert the XML back to a .QM use the command

    C:\Qt\QT5.3.1\5.3\mingw482_32\bin\lrelease.exe Neoden4.ts

    The QM likely changes between versions, so best to always grab the current one.

    Original

    image

    After, you can see the space before the numbers and you can stretch out the SMD Spec column

    image

    Fixing the MAC address

    If you want to keep the same setup but either change the current mini PC< run it on another system or add a network card that messes up the install, you can either change the mac address so its the same as the original, or you can hard code the MAC address in QT this does mean setting up QT to compile with mingw etc.

    If you haven’t grabbed QT 5.31 do so and extract it to C:\QT\QT5.3.1

    The software doesn’t use any of the networking except for the MAC address

    Open the file

    C:\QT\QT5.3.1\qtbase\src\network\kernel\qnetworkinterface.cpp

    Look for

    QString QNetworkInterface::hardwareAddress() const

    In the following code substitute the desired MAC address for 00:00:00:00:00:00.

    /*!
            Returns the low-level hardware address for this interface. On
           Ethernet interfaces, this will be a MAC address in string
           representation, separated by colons.
           Other interface types may have other types of hardware
            addresses. Implementations should not depend on this function
            returning a valid MAC address.

    */

    QString QNetworkInterface::hardwareAddress() const

    {
           return QString(“00:00:00:00:00:00”);
           return d ? d->hardwareAddress : QString();

    }

    Now recompile QT

    configure.bat -release -qt-zlib -opensource -confirm-license -platform win32-g++ -opengl desktop -prefix C:\Qt\Qt5.3.1\5.3\mingw48_32 -nomake tests -nomake examples

    Then copy over the new Qt5Network.dll to the machine or your local install and test it.

    Change the Logo

    This is a simple one, change Logo.png in the D:\Neoden4\Res folder to a PNG of your choice that is 500×100 32 bit with an alpha background

    Logo

    image

    Shutdown

    If for some reason you don’t want the machine to shut down after you click Shut Down search and replace shutdown in the Neoden4.exe with an invalid cmd. Like xxxxxx then it won’t execute it. It is in a couple of spots. Entering the config mode incorrectly also tells the machine to shutdown, which is annoying if you do run it on a different PC

    image

    image

    Running on a different PC

    You’ll need the MAC address fix from above otherwise it’ll be in Chinese. Copy over all the files from D:\neoden4\ to the new machine , doesn’t really matter where. But you will need a serial port that is at COM2:  and the same drive letter as the USB drive is now.

    If you run XP the drivers for the cameras are in the D:\Neoden4 folder, if you want x64 or newer windows we will have to make some up, which just means grabbing the right version of the Cypress FX usb drivers and adding the Cameras USB ID’s

    As a side note you can use software like KernelPro to forward USB and the Serial over TCP/IP to any other machine on the network and it’ll work fine as long as you install the camera drivers and the forwarded Serial is COM2

    com0com should work too, but you will need to forward the USB as well, i’ve used the Kernel Pro software a fair but and its been pretty solid and useful for sniffing, RE etc.

    image

    The Windows DDK also has the skeleton code for a Virtual Serial Port I’ve used that one extensively too

    Another great tool for sniffing is Device Monitoring Studio, came in handy when  building the keyboard.

    This of course needs a network adapter on the Neoden4 side in order to forward the Serial/USB too

    The Cameras

    Camera USB ID

    camera1

    camera1a

    Second

    camera2

    As we can clearly see its a Cypress FX with CYUSB3.sys driver. The machine had a folder called CameraNew that had the XP32 drivers, but we may want to update those.

    Just need to add this to the cyusb3.inf driver. (which i’ve linked here )

    VID_52CB&PID_52CB.DeviceDesc=”Camera Neoden Tech.”

    and to each relevant section (the platforms)

    %VID_52CB&PID_52CB.DeviceDesc%=CyUsb3, USB\VID_52CB&PID_52CB

    e.g. add it to each of these sections

    ;for all platforms

    [Device.NT]

    ;for x86 platforms

    [Device.NTx86]

    Add the same line to each of these Device sections for the OS you want to create the driver , all of them for completeness

    Cypress actually document the process here, as well as locating the drivers you might need, i used windows 7 x64 as my base

    https://community.cypress.com/docs/DOC-12366

    To match the device with the drivers, refer to the steps mentioned under the section “Matching Devices to the Driver ” in the attached PDF file. Adding the VID/PID is already done in the attached .inf file , so you can skip “Step A : Add the device’s Vendor ID and Product ID to the CYUSB3.INF file”.

    Now you will have camera drivers for your system and can install them when you add the USB cameras.

    The serial connection is hardwired on the motherboard of the mini PC which is inside the PNP, in this post I am mostly going to concentrate on the software side and to be honest if you can’t find the bits to rewire in the new PC you should probably leave it alone as it does have a few things going on. But you do just need to reroute USB (cameras) and Serial(Control) . So they’re fairly straightforward.

    USB to serial is fine. since i have ran it plenty of times with a serial<>tcpip bridge

    You can also use these drivers for a fresh XP install that uses the language set of your choice.

    As long as you copy all the opencv dlls, and install folder on D: from the machine  that is all you need to make a fresh install on the same PC, if you change the PC you will need to do MAC fix or it might default to the Chinese language, which is fine if you speak Chinese.

    I didn’t really look into how they generate the config password since its so easy to replicate a MAC , but that is what it is based on, i may take a look sometime.

    Other Mods to the GUI

    I wanted rid of the frameless app so it can be resized on a larger monitor, since the app uses QT it’ll use setWindowsFlags with

    Qt::FramelessWindowHint

    Which is 0x0000800

    Looking thru the binary we can see the calls to setWindowsFlags , it is mangled so using a demangle tool we can see this is correct

    QWidget::setWindowFlags(QFlags<Qt::WindowType>)


    Which is right, and there is the flag being placed on the stack for the call, so just change it to 0 and  it will now run with a resizeable border

    C7 04 24 00 08 00 00   mov     dword ptr [esp], 0x800

    FF 15 EC 04 4F 00       call  ds:_ZN7QWidget14setWindowFlagsE6QFlagsIN2Qt10WindowTypeEE

    the qt_main is where the main window is created, which itself is called from WinMain, so traverse WinMain to  the QT main routine looking for

    QApplication::QApplication(int&, char**, int)



    which in this case is mangled as

    _ZN12QApplicationC1ERiPPci

    Although I usually find QT apps a PITA to RE they do all share common flows so its easy to find the basics

    We’ll know where the main window is created in that function since it’ll have

    _ZN7QWidget4showEv

    QWidget::show()

    But we have enough info with the C7 04 24 00 08 00 00  FF 15 EC, just search and replace that with C7 04 24 00 00 00 00 FF 15 EC a global replace does change all the windows to be bordered, but you might not want to change all of them, next i want to change all the tabs to automatically expand, but i haven’t done that yet, and Neoden do actually keep doing updates.

    image

    image

    Most of the changes they’re making seem mostly related to text fixes ,maybe since they did a Neoden USA partnership

    image

    Then it can run remotely on Windows 7 x64 etc with just the pnp computer being the remote host.

    image

    Gaining control

    Lets cover getting access to the control systems if we want to change the software altogether

    It is all serial to the motion controller board so it is trivial to snoop, after that there is CAN bus but it doesn’t really feel like a necessity to go that far yet, (apparentlyit now is ) maybe if people wanted to use the feeders or peelers for other projects but there are better ones. Also i wonder if its any coincidence that serial byte size is 8 bytes, which is what you send in the most common CAN frame.

    Here is the boot up trace, these are annotated for the test software with a C++ wrapper for the RS232dll.dll so it can snoop, change or inject if needed

    /// boot to main menu

    //status msg

    Write 0x45Read 0x09

    Write 0x05

    Read 0x14

    Write 0x85

    Read 0x1c

    Read 0x00 0x03 0x00 0x16 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x5d

    // blow/suck
        Write 0x43

    Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // blow nozzle 1

    Write 0x01 0x01 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0xb2

    Write 0x03
        Read 0x03

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    Write 0x43
        Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // blow nozzle 2

    Write 0x01 0x02 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x30

    Write 0x03
        Read 0x03

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    Write 0x43
        Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // blow nozzle 3

    Write 0x01 0x03 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x51

    Write 0x03
        Read 0x03

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    Write 0x43
        Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // blow nozzle 4

    Write 0x01 0x04 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x15

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x03

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    Write 0x43
        Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // off nozzle 1

    Write 0x00 0x01 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x61

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x03

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    Write 0x43
        Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // off nozzle 2

    Write 0x00 0x02 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0xe3

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x03

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    Write 0x43
        Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // off nozzle 3

    Write 0x00 0x03 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x82

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x03

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    Write 0x43
        Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // off nozzle 4

    Write 0x00 0x04 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0xc6

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x03

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    //blow all off
        Write 0x43

    Read 0x0f

    Write 0xc3

    Read 0x07

    // all off?

    Write 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00

    Write 0x03

    Read 0x47

    //rotate nozzles
        Write 0x41

    Read 0x0d

    Write 0xc1

    Read 0x05

    Write 0x00 0x00 0x96 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x45

    Write 0x01

    Read 0x01

    Write 0x01

    Read 0x45

    // move nozzles, max retract
        Write 0x42

    Read 0x0e

    Write 0xc2

    Read 0x06

    Write 0x00 0x00 0x96 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x45

    Write 0x02

    Read 0x11

    // rails set speed to 00
        Write 0x46

    Read 0x0a

    Write 0xc6

    Read 0x02

    Write 0x64 0x09 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x19

    Write 0x06

    Read 0x06

    Write 0x06

    Read 0x42

    //rail set speed to 100%

    Write 0x46

    Read 0x0a

    Write 0xc6

    Read 0x02

    Write 0x64 0x09 0x00 0xc8 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x8c

    Write 0x06

    Read 0x06

    Write 0x06

    Calculating the CRC Routines

    So looking at the data, its a cmd, reply, cmd reply, cmd with extra data and an obvious CRC at the end. Going back to the binary lets see what CRC tables there are.

    Yep sure enough there are two common CRCs

    A full CRC16 table for poly 0x1021

    dw 0, 4129, 8258, 12387, 16516, 20645, 24774, 28903, 33032

                 37161, 41290, 45419, 49548, 53677, 57806, 61935, 4657

    Second table is the first 16 words of the same table

    dw 0, 4129, 8258, 12387, 16516, 20645, 24774, 28903, 33032, 161, 41290, 45419, 49548, 53677, 57806, 61935

    Looking for references to this we see a normal CRC16, its next to com port write/write (which we can tell from the references to the rs232dll.dll )

    For the smaller table its a different routine. Digging into it a bit we see it is taking the cmd we sent, the reply from the machine , masking and then calculating the crc from the smaller table.

    push    ebx

    sub     esp, 0x28

    mov     ebx, [esp+0x2C+arg_4]

    mov     eax, [esp+0x2C+arg_0]

    mov     [esp+2Ch+var_28], 2

    mov     [esp+2Ch+var_E], al

    mov     eax, ebx

    and     ebx, 0Fh

    and     eax, 0FFFFFFF0h

    mov     [esp+0x2C+var_D], al

    lea     eax, [esp+-0x2C+var_E]

    mov     [esp+2Ch+var_2C], eax

    call    crc16_16

    and     eax, 0x0F

    cmp     al, bl

    setz    al

    add     esp, 0x28

    pop     ebx

    retn    8

    So it is pulling in cmd( sent by software) and the reply from the machine, combining them into a 16 bit value ,masking it off to be the top nybble, then crcing those two bytes, then it masks the lower nybble of the calculated CRC and the reply from the machine then check to see if they match, converting it to C

    bool  checkReply ( char cmd, char reply )

    {
           // combine and mask
           int16_t v3 = ( cmd + ( int16_t ( reply  << 8 ) ) ) & 0xf0ff;
           // technically it calls the full 32bit crc, but we only need the lower nybble
            uint16_t crc = crc16_16 ( ( uint8_t * ) &v3, 2 );
           // mask off lower nybble
            crc &= 0x0f;
           reply &= 0x0f;
           // if they match, we’re good.
            return ( crc == reply  );

    }

    Lets test it out, i also put the CRC routine here

    Launch C++

    Feeding it a couple of cmds that the machine says are valid, and one bad command we get

    CMD = 0xC3 reply = 0x07 = yes

    CMD = 0x45 reply = 0x09 = yes

    CMD = 0x45 reply = 0xAA = no

    Great we know know that this is how the machine replies to commands.

    Next is the CRC at the end of the larger blocks, this one was fixed at 2 bytes, so we know it is not it. We know there is a second CRC16 table, so looking at the references for that we find the standard CRC16 routine, and then referring to that we see the routine that then spits out the 9 bytes. The RS232 dll has a separate routine for sending out the single bytes.

    Just to make it easy to prove out we can use an online tool to verify it is what I think it is.

    Online CRC Calculator

    Lets take a couple of known strings

    0x64 0x09 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00  CRC=0x19

    0x64 0x09 0x00 0xc8 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00  CRC=0x8C

    Set CRC to HEX and 16

    Result 1

    image

    Result 2

    image

    There we go, CRC16/XMODEM i know its polynomial 0x1021 and i know the seed is 0 and Neoden only uses the lower byte

    So now we know what both the CRC routines are, how the basic command structure works and we can go from there

    The next part is a little tedious since it means we snoop the serial, and select one command at a time, see what happens and try variations on it, record, test and repeat.. basic science . Luckily there aren’t that many.

    // a few hours pass by

    A quick C++ class to define a basic test harness with each part added as more information is discovered, creating a class for sub components like the Rails, feeders etc and then an embodied class for the machine.

    Taking just one simple example, the buzzer

    // beep if true, off if false
                 // @return pass/fail
                bool Buzzer ( bool on ) {
                    if ( bBoot == false ) { return false; }
                    if ( getAck ( 0x47 ) == false ) {
                         return false;
                     }
                    if ( getAck ( 0xc7 ) == false ) {
                          return false;
                    }
                    uint8_t cmd[8] = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
                    if ( on ) {
                          cmd[5] = 0x01;
                    }
                    //doesn’t expect a reply from the machine
                     if ( sendData ( cmd, 8 ) != 8 ) {
                        return false;
                    }
                    return getAck ( 0x07 );
                 }

    The flow is, (it varies on some commands)

    check the boot worked (sending the byte sequence from before)

    getAck sends 0x47 and checks for the shorter CRC’d reply , returning true or false if passed

    repeats for 0xC7 , not sure why it follows this style yet, maybe its a class/subclass thing or another protocol

    now it sends out the 8 byte packet with the message we’re sending, byte 5 = 1 to turn on the buzzer, 0 to turn off the buzzer

    finally it checks to see if the command completed properly, by sending out the getAck(0x7)

    The final getAck will often send back the cmd you sent rather than the CRC, I believe it is doing this as a pause method, in code the retry for the final command to 5 retries, the serial has a 500 ms timeout set. (it is also 115200,n,8,1)

    The 8 byte send is done thru sendData which will tack on the 9th byte which is the computed CRC16/XMODEM/POLY1021 and it never expects a reply for that send

    For the X Y coord’s they take mm and then are n*1000 to convert to an int16, for speed for the rails they are n*2 for the int16

    Building a DLL to snoop

    Even though snooping is trivial on serial, it is often useful to build a DLL that can intercept data. So the easiest one first is the RS232DLL.DLL.. . Their name not mine Smile

    First step is just to take a quick peek at what the DLL exports, dumpbin (MSVC)  will do that.

    dumpbin /exports rs232dll.dll

    File Type: DLL
         Section contains the following exports for rs232.dll
           00000000 characteristics
            545B1F00 time date stamp Wed Nov  5 23:10:56 2014
               0.00 version
                  1 ordinal base
                  5 number of functions
                  5 number of names
           ordinal hint RVA      name
                 1    0 00001080 rs232_close
                  2    1 00001050 rs232_open
                 3    2 00001090 rs232_read
                 4    3 000010B0 rs232_readSyn
                  5    4 000010D0 rs232_write
         Summary
               5000 .data
                 1000 .rdata
               1000 .reloc
                7000 .text

    Great it is simple, open close, read , another read, and a write.

    Now to make a proxy DLL, there are a bunch of tools to do this, I haven’t tried this one but it has both x64 and x32 which i’d added to the tool used here, the other one is here

    https://github.com/SeanPesce/DLL_Wrapper_Generator

    In short a proxy dll when loaded  loads the old dll which has been renamed, and then adds the functions from the old DLL as pointers, when the host calls your proxy dll , you do stuff then pass control to the original DLL

    Example

    extern “C” __declspec ( naked ) void __E__0__()

    {
           __asm pushad
           __asm pushfd
           OutputDebugStringA ( “rs232_close\n” );
           __asm popfd
           __asm popad
           __asm {
                jmp procs[E_RS232_CLOSE*4];
           }

    }

    this is the proxy for the rs232_close function. All it does is print rs232_close\n to the windows debug log.

    the DLLMain is where the proxy is setup

    BOOL WINAPI DllMain ( HINSTANCE hInst, DWORD reason, LPVOID )
        {
           OutputDebugStringA ( “DllMain called\n” );
           if ( reason == DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH ) {
                OutputDebugStringA ( “DllMain DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH\n” );
               hLThis = hInst;
               hL = LoadLibrary ( _T ( “rs232dllOLD.DLL” ) );
               if ( !hL ) { OutputDebugStringA ( “Failed to load original library\n” ); return false; }
                procs[E_RS232_CLOSE] = GetProcAddress ( hL, “rs232_close” );
               if ( procs[E_RS232_CLOSE] == NULL ) { OutputDebugStringA ( “Failed to get proc address rs232_close\n” ); }
               procs[E_RS232_OPEN] = GetProcAddress ( hL, “rs232_open” );
               if ( procs[E_RS232_OPEN] == NULL ) { OutputDebugStringA ( “Failed to get proc address rs232_open\n” ); }
               procs[E_RS232_READ] = GetProcAddress ( hL, “rs232_read” );
               if ( procs[E_RS232_READ] == NULL ) { OutputDebugStringA ( “Failed to get proc address rs232_read\n” ); }
               procs[E_RS232_READSYN] = GetProcAddress ( hL, “rs232_readSyn” );
               if ( procs[E_RS232_READSYN] == NULL ) { OutputDebugStringA ( “Failed to get proc address rs232_readSyn\n” ); }
               procs[E_RS232_WRITE] = GetProcAddress ( hL, “rs232_write” );
               if ( procs[E_RS232_WRITE] == NULL ) { OutputDebugStringA ( “Failed to get proc address rs232_write\n” ); }
           }
           if ( reason == DLL_PROCESS_DETACH ) {
                OutputDebugStringA ( “DllMain DLL_PROCESS_DETACH\n” );
               FreeLibrary ( hL );
            }
           return 1;
        }

    When the HOST attaches to our proxy DLL , it uses LoadLibrary to open the old DLL RS232dllOLDd.dll then it uses GetProcAddress on the handle for that DLL and gets the pointer to the real function, and stores it in an array for later.

    Very basic,  and works great., this is for an X32 proxy with VC unless we want to emit we use an external asm file for X64, which would look like this.

    ; entirelyDifferentFunc

      __E__0__ proc
           PUSHAQ
           lea        rcx, _entirelyDifferentFunc
           call qword ptr    __imp_OutputDebugStringA
           POPAQ
           call        procs[0*8]
           ret

    __E__0__ endp

    _entirelyDifferentFunc    db    “entirelyDifferentFunc”,13,10,0

    PUSHAQ/POPAQ are macros that save all the things.

    Also use a.def file to map the new functions to the originals, as well define the exports/order

    LIBRARY   rs232dll

    EXPORTS

    rs232_close @1

    rs232_open @2

    rs232_read @3

    rs232_readSyn @4

    rs232_write @5

    The @number is the ordinal for the function in the DLL, its index. This tells the linker we’re exporting these functions, we can alias them here too. Depending on how the original DLL was built it might be mangled,. or use stdcall/fastcall etc etc so this can be dealt with here

    aliasing looks like this

    EXPORTS

    rs232_close=__E__0__ @1

    rs232_open=__E__1__ @2

    rs232_read=__E__2__ @3

    rs232_readSyn=__E__3__ @4

    rs232_write=__E__4__ @5

    this allows us to map the autogenerated names to the real names.

    Once you’ve mapped all these out you can make a simple dump function to show the data being passed in and out

    // name of function, ptr to data to dump and length of data

    void dump ( const  char *name, unsigned char *ptr, unsigned int length )

    {
           if ( ptr ) {
               if ( length ) {
                     //if ( ptr[0] != 0x64 )   { return; }
                   if ( name ) {
                        OutputDebugStringA ( name );
                   }
                   _RPT0 ( _CRT_WARN, “Write = { ” );
                   while ( length– ) {
                        _RPT1 ( _CRT_WARN, “0x%02x,”, *ptr++ );
                   }
                   _RPT0 ( _CRT_WARN, “} ;\n ” );
                }
            }

    }

    Here you can also filter out data you don’t care about, you can see an example commented out where i wasn’t interested in messages that started with 0x64 this can help increase signal to noise ratio

    Forget Snoop, Just rewrite the DLL

    Since the RS232 dll turned out to be really basic, it was just reimplemented as to have total control

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int __cdecl rs232_read ( LPVOID lpBuffer, DWORD nNumberOfBytesToRead )

    {
           DWORD bytesRead = 0;
           BOOL  fSuccess = ReadFile (
                                 hCom,    //Handle
                                lpBuffer,  //Incoming data
                                nNumberOfBytesToRead,  
                                 &bytesRead, //Bytes Read
                                0 // not overlapped
                             );
           dump ( “rs232_read”, ( unsigned char* ) lpBuffer, bytesRead );
           return bytesRead;
        }

    __declspec( dllexport) tells VC that we’re exporting this function

    // doesnt use serial timeouts, uses a GetTickCount

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int __cdecl rs232_readSyn ( PVOID lpBuffer, DWORD nNumberOfBytesToRead, DWORD timeout )

    {
           ULONGLONG endTime;
           DWORD bytesRead = 0;
           endTime = GetTickCount64() + timeout;
           do {
                bytesRead = 0;
               BOOL  fSuccess = ReadFile (
                                      hCom,
                                    lpBuffer,
                                     nNumberOfBytesToRead,
                                     &bytesRead,
                                    NULL // not overlapped
                                );
               if ( fSuccess & bytesRead ) {
                   dump ( “rs232_readSyn”, ( unsigned char* ) lpBuffer, bytesRead );
                   return 1;
                }
           } while ( GetTickCount64() < endTime );
           return 0;
        }

    Mapping these functions out to be as close to the original as possible.

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int __cdecl rs232_write ( LPVOID lpBuffer, DWORD nNumberOfBytesToWrite )
        {
           DWORD dwNumberOfBytesWritten = 0;
           dump ( “rs232_write”, ( unsigned char* ) lpBuffer, nNumberOfBytesToWrite );
           BOOL fSuccess
                = WriteFile (
                     hCom,
                     lpBuffer,
                     nNumberOfBytesToWrite,
                     &dwNumberOfBytesWritten,
                     NULL
                 );
           return dwNumberOfBytesWritten;

    }

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int __cdecl rs232_close()

    {
           OutputDebugStringA ( “rs232_close\n” );
           int ret = CloseHandle ( hCom );
           hCom = NULL;
           return ret;
        }

    Comm States used and set internally

    int  OurSetCommState ( HANDLE h, DWORD baud )

    {
           DWORD v7;
           struct _DCB DCB;
           DCB.DCBlength = sizeof ( DCB );
            GetCommState ( h, &DCB );
           DCB.BaudRate = baud;
            DCB.ByteSize = 8;             //  data size, xmit and rcv
           DCB.Parity = NOPARITY;      //  parity bit
           DCB.StopBits = ONESTOPBIT;    //  stop bit
           if ( SetCommState ( h, &DCB ) ) {
                return 1;
           }
           v7 = GetLastError();
           return 0;

    }

    int  SetTimeouts ( HANDLE h )
        {
           DWORD error;
           struct _COMMTIMEOUTS CommTimeouts;
           GetCommTimeouts ( h, &CommTimeouts );
           CommTimeouts.ReadTotalTimeoutMultiplier = 0;
             CommTimeouts.ReadTotalTimeoutConstant = 0;
           CommTimeouts.ReadIntervalTimeout = -1;
            CommTimeouts.WriteTotalTimeoutMultiplier = 10;
           CommTimeouts.WriteTotalTimeoutConstant = 1000;
           if ( SetCommTimeouts ( h, &CommTimeouts ) ) {
                return 1;
           }
           error = GetLastError();
            _RPT1 ( _CRT_WARN, “SetTimeouts failed: = %d\n”, error );
           return 0;
        }

    rs232_open function, which is called with the com2: 115200, ,n,8,1 settings , this also sets timeouts etc

    // opens and sets up baud rate etc.

    //a4/a5 = 0 (parity)

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int __cdecl rs232_open ( LPCSTR lpFileName, int baudrate, int bits, int a4, int a5 )

    {
           OutputDebugStringA ( “rs232_open ” );
            OutputDebugStringA ( lpFileName );
            OutputDebugStringA ( “\n” );
           // HANDLE hCom;
            int result = 0;
           //  Open a handle to the specified com port.
            hCom = CreateFileA ( lpFileName,
                                GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE,
                                0,      //  must be opened with exclusive-access
                                NULL,   //  default security attributes
                                 OPEN_EXISTING, //  must use OPEN_EXISTING
                                 0,      //  not overlapped I/O
                                 NULL ); //  hTemplate must be NULL for comm devices
           if ( hCom == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) {
                //  Handle the error.
               _RPT1 ( _CRT_WARN, “CreateFile failed with error %d.\n”, GetLastError() );
               return result;
           }
           SetCommMask ( hCom, 511u );
            SetupComm ( hCom, 512u, 32u );
           PurgeComm ( hCom, 12u );
           if ( OurSetCommState ( hCom, baudrate ) ) {
               if ( SetTimeouts ( hCom ) ) {
                   EscapeCommFunction ( hCom, 5 );
                   EscapeCommFunction ( hCom, 3 );
                   PurgeComm ( hCom, 0xF );
                   result = 1;
               }
           }
           return result;
        }

    then there is a global for the HANDLE to the serial device/COM2 

    static HANDLE hCom = 0;

    And then the whole thing is wrapped in, this matches it to the original DLL which says it was built in VC6 ? linker 6.0

    extern “C” {

    }

    rs232_readSyn has the timeout that reads the single ack back

    So in this case it was just as easy to rewrite the DLL as proxying it and ignore the COM settings and fill in as needed

    Adding USB cameras, for some reason

    One of the first things to do with the software after making it run on a dev box was hook up a couple of USB cameras so the machine didn’t need to be up and running while fiddling with it. The Neoden cameras are Cypress FX devices which do basically just have a couple of routines to set exposure, flash, size etc the capture routine just returns a w*h uint8 grey buffer for the image, with the cameras id of 0/1(5) passed to the DLL

    same procedure as before, examine the dll and see what it exports

    ordinal hint RVA      name
             1    0 00001840 img_capture
               2    1 000017D0 img_init
              3    2 00001870 img_led
              4    3 000019F0 img_read
              5    4 00001A30 img_readAsy
              6    5 000018B0 img_reset
              7    6 000018F0 img_set_exp
              8    7 00001930 img_set_gain
              9    8 00001970 img_set_lt
             10    9 000019B0 img_set_wh

    which more or less translates too

    __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_capture ( int which_camera);
         __declspec ( dllexport ) int _cdecl img_init();
        __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_led ( int which_camera, int16_t mode );
        __declspec ( dllexport ) int _cdecl img_read ( int which_camera, unsigned char * pFrameBuffer, uint32_t BytesToRead, uint32 ms );
        __declspec ( dllexport ) int _cdecl img_readAsy (int which_camera, unsigned char * pFrameBuffer, uint32 BytesToRead, uint32 ms);
        __declspec (dllexport) int _cdecl img_reset(int which_camera);
        __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_set_exp ( int which_camera, int16_t exposure );
        __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_set_gain ( int which_camera, int16_t gain );
        __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_set_lt ( int which_camera, int16_t a2, int16_t a3 );
        __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_set_wh ( int which_camera, int16_t w, int16_t h );

    so after wrapping videoinput/opencv into a new dll

    static int16_t g_width, g_height;
        VideoCapture *stream1 = NULL, *stream2 = NULL;
           __declspec ( dllexport ) int _cdecl img_init()
             {
                static bool init = false;
               if ( init == false ) {
                   stream1 = new VideoCapture ( 1 );
                     stream2 = new VideoCapture ( 0 );
                    init = true;
                }
               return 1;
             }

    the software only seemed to use readAsy

    // a1 = 5 (1 if downlooking?)
           // a2 = 0x05580030
          // a3 = 0x00100000
          // a5 = 0x97 (changes)
          // dwMilliseconds = 1000
          int _cdecl img_readAsy ( int which_camera, unsigned char * pFrameBuffer, int a3, DWORD dwMilliseconds, char a5 )
          {
              if ( pFrameBuffer == NULL ) {
                  return 0;
              }
             Mat cameraFrame;
             if ( which_camera == 5 ) {
                   if ( stream1 == NULL ) {
                      return 0;
                  }
                 stream1->read ( cameraFrame );
             } else {
                   if ( stream2 == NULL ) {
                      return 0;
                  }
                 stream2->read ( cameraFrame );
                 // my camera was flipped
                   flip ( cameraFrame, cameraFrame, 0 );
              }
            // convert to grey
              if ( cameraFrame.rows ) {
                  cv::Mat greyMat;
                  flip ( cameraFrame, cameraFrame, 1 );
                  cv::cvtColor ( cameraFrame, greyMat, CV_BGR2GRAY );
                  Size size ( g_width, g_height );
                  resize ( greyMat, greyMat, size );
                 memcpy ( pFrameBuffer, greyMat.ptr(), g_height * g_width );
               }
              return 1;
          }

    // a2 = 1024, a3 =1024 a1 = 5

    BOOL _cdecl img_set_wh ( int which, int16_t width, int16_t height )

    {
           _RPT3 ( _CRT_WARN, “img_set_wh) %d %d %d\n”, which, width, height );
           g_width = width;
           g_height = height;
           return TRUE;
        }

    So just a very quick and dirty interface to cameras that VideoInput supports, it is only really useful during desktop RE work but maybe there will be a time when i can swap out the cameras in the machine, either way it works and we can move on to the real Neoden cameras

    Deeper Dive with the Neoden Camera

    Picking apart the NeodenCamera.dll it is using CyApi / CyUsb3.sys to communicate with the cameras. I did see a post on eevblog that said it was CGUSB2.dll there might be an older rev of the hardware that uses those cameras, but these don’t. Similar hardware so could just be a rewrite to the new FX chip

    Going over the IOCTLs

    First process is to build up the Constructor/Destructor code for the CyUSB interface, since that shows me where the device context/structs are. Also decoding the IOCTLs which are built with

    #define IOCTL_Device_Function CTL_CODE(DeviceType, Function, Method, Access)


    It creates a 32 bit value

    diagram illustrating the i/o control code layout

    Online Decoder

    The commonly appearing IOCTL is 0x220020 which decodes as

    Device = 0x22(FILE_DEVICE_UNKNOWN) which means this device doesn’t match any of the predefined ones

    Function 0x8

    Access FILE_ANY_ACCESS

    Method unbuffered

    The others observed are

    0x220008 Function 0x08 Unbuffered

    0x22003C Function 0xF Buffered

    0x220040  Function 0x10 Buffered

    0x220010 Function 0x04 Buffered

    0x220000 Function 0x0 Buffered

    0x220004 Function 0x01 Buffered

    Looking in cyioctl.h from the Cypress SDK the IOCTLS are defined as

    #define IOCTL_ADAPT_GET_DRIVER_VERSION         CTL_CODE(FILE_DEVICE_UNKNOWN, IOCTL_ADAPT_INDEX, METHOD_BUFFERED, FILE_ANY_ACCESS)

    IOCTL_ADAPT_INDEX as 0x000

    So lets see what matches and if it makes any sense

    Taking the IOCTL 0x220000 we see that is function 0, buffered, so seems to match IOCTL_ADAPT_GET_DRIVER_VERSION  so now to check the code and see if it looks like that IOCTL is indeed looking for a driver version, this seems like a lucky place to start since a driver version is going to be obvious, Plus they are all in the Open call so filling in the basic startup stuff

    void  CallDeviceIO_220000(DWORD *HANDLE)

    {
          DWORD *pThis;
          DWORD *v2;

       pThis = HANDLE;
          if ( HANDLE[541] == -1 )                      // handle to device, is it not open?
          {
            HANDLE[11] = 0; // otherwise set output buffer to \0
          }
          else
          {
            outbutBuffer = HANDLE + 11;

              // handle, ioctl, ptr to outbuffer, size of buffer
            if ( !CallDeviceIO(HANDLE, 0x220000u, HANDLE + 11, 4u) || !pThis[530] )                                            

    // failed
              *outputBuffer = 0;
          }

    }

    So it is asking for 4 bytes from the device, Lets look at the others

    220000 Function 0x0 Buffered IOCTL_ADAPT_GET_DRIVER_VERSION

    220004 Function 0x01 Buffered  IOCTL_ADAPT_GET_USBDI_VERSION Get the USBDI Version

    220010 Function 0x04 Buffered IOCTL_ADAPT_GET_ADDRESS Get device address from driver

    220008 Function 0x08 Unbuffered IOCTL_ADAPT_SEND_EP0_CONTROL_TRANSFER Send a raw packet to endpoint

    220040 Function 0x10 Buffered IOCTL_ADAPT_GET_FRIENDLY_NAME

    22003C Function 0xF Buffered IOCTL_ADAPT_GET_DEVICE_NAME

    Confirm with CyUSB3/CyAPI SDK

    Seems to make sense, looking back at the code  the IOCTLs that pass strings have larger buffers, (0x100) but before we go too far down the rabbit hole, lets look back at the Cypress SDK

    And there it is in the Open function

    GetUSBAddress();

    GetDeviceName();

    GetFriendlyName();

    GetDriverVer();

    GetUSBDIVer();

    GetSpeed();

    Great everything is matching, so now have verified this is the right SDK and it is acting as expected.

    bool CCyUSBDevice::Open(UCHAR dev)

    Calling this function and from the SDK know that the HANDLE above is pointing to this

    typedef struct _USB_DEVICE_DESCRIPTOR {
            UCHAR   bLength;
            UCHAR   bDescriptorType;
            USHORT  bcdUSB;
            UCHAR   bDeviceClass;
            UCHAR   bDeviceSubClass;
            UCHAR   bDeviceProtocol;
            UCHAR   bMaxPacketSize0;
            USHORT  idVendor;
            USHORT  idProduct;
            USHORT  bcdDevice;
            UCHAR   iManufacturer;
            UCHAR   iProduct;
            UCHAR   iSerialNumber;
            UCHAR   bNumConfigurations;

    } USB_DEVICE_DESCRIPTOR, *PUSB_DEVICE_DESCRIPTOR;

    So at this point  it might be best to start rebuilding the NeodenCamera.dll with the CyUSB3 SDK, since again it is a simple enough DLL with just the specifics for chatting to the hardware.

    Can we recreate the NeodenCamera.dll

    Just to be clear, This doesn’t really need to be done this since how to use the existing DLL is now documented ,but for the *nix people they can recreate with CyAPi or libusb.

    Loaded up VC2017,  created a DLL project, set it to MBCS added the CyUsb3 files to the project, turned off Precompiled headers for CyAPi.cpp  , added stdint.h and crtdbg.h to the stdafx.h , also need SetupAPI.lib for CyUsb3 added that to stdafx.h as well. Currently its set to be an X86 since the Neoden software is all 32 bit.

    Using the information from the USB VideoCapture driver and filling out the basic functions that the DLL exports.

    __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_capture ( int which_camera );

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int _cdecl img_init();

    __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_led ( int which_camera, int16_t mode );

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int _cdecl img_read ( int which_camera, unsigned char * pFrameBuffer, int BytesToRead, int ms);

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int _cdecl img_readAsy ( int which_camera, unsigned char * pFrameBuffer, int BytesToRead, int ms);

    __declspec ( dllexport ) int _cdecl img_reset ( int which_camera );

    __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_set_exp ( int which_camera, int16_t exposure );

    __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_set_gain ( int which_camera, int16_t gain );

    __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_set_lt ( int which_camera, int16_t a2, int16_t a3 );

    __declspec ( dllexport ) BOOL _cdecl img_set_wh ( int which_camera, int16_t w, int16_t h );

    They’re a little rough at the moment but they will be fixed up as work progresses

    Forgot to add the .def so thats just (although the code is using the __declspec(dllexport)

    EXPORTS

    img_capture = img_capture @1

    img_init @2

    img_led @3

    img_read @4

    img_readAsy @5

    img_reset @6

    img_set_exp @7

    img_set_gain @8

    img_set_lt @9

    img_set_wh @10

    Next step is setting up the USB Device, so add CyUSB.h to stdafx.h and add a couple of CCyUSNDevice to init the USB

    So lets enumerate the USB devices that match ours first. Also at this point I realise its easier to run this as an EXE so i change the type from DLL to EXE in the VC options, and add a WInMain

    int WINAPI WinMain (
            HINSTANCE hInstance,    
            HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
            LPSTR lpCmdLine,        
            int nCmdShow      

    )

    {
            return 0;

    }

    Now i can just run as an EXE don’t need a host to test.

    Enumerating the USB

    Ok lets enumerate the USB devices we want

    // Create the CyUSBDevice

    CCyUSBDevice* USBNeodenCamera = new CCyUSBDevice ( 0, CYUSBDRV_GUID, true );

    int n = USBNeodenCamera->DeviceCount();

    // for all Cypress devices found

    for ( int i = 0; i < n; i++ ) {

        USBNeodenCamera->Open ( i );

        // Is it the Neoden?
            if ( USBNeodenCamera->VendorID != 0x52CB ) {
                continue;
            }

         std::string model = narrow ( std::wstring ( USBNeodenCamera->Product ) );
            std::string serial = narrow ( std::wstring ( USBNeodenCamera->SerialNumber ) );

        _RPT5 ( _CRT_WARN, “DID %04x:%04x, %s, %s, %s,%s\n”,
                    USBNeodenCamera->VendorID, USBNeodenCamera->ProductID,
                    USBNeodenCamera->DeviceName, USBNeodenCamera->DevPath,
                    model.c_str(), serial.c_str()
                  );

    }

    delete USBNeodenCamera;

    Then test.

    DID 52cb:52cb, B0001 Camera Shibz, \\?\usb#vid_52cb&pid_52cb#1&2d12bed1&0&0000#{ae18aa60-7f6a-11d4-97dd-00010229b959}, B0001 Camera Shibz,

    DID 52cb:52cb, H0001 Camera Shibz, \\?\usb#vid_52cb&pid_52cb#1&2d12bed1&0&0001#{ae18aa60-7f6a-11d4-97dd-00010229b959}, H0001 Camera Shibz,

    Perfect, both cameras found. the 0000 and 0001 are up and down cameras . both use the same driver

    Since this is a simple DLL and that it is known that both cameras exist , that are always two. That does reduce the complexity a bit, so it can be noted either by the device index or init a global to point to each of the cameras when we find them. Shibz is slang for Shibuya, Tokyo not sure if there is another clue there or not. The names of the cameras do differ slightly with a H and B

    After the enumeration, I figure that the img_led function is probably easiest to implement to start off with, poking through the original dll i see another IOCTL

    0x220044 which decodes as Function 0x11, referring to the Cyioctl.h 0x11 is IOCTL_ADAPT_ABORT_PIPE, which aborts any current EndPoint transactions, a purge if you will, it’s another one of the CyApis functions

    RetVal = (DeviceIoControl(hDevice,IOCTL_ADAPT_ABORT_PIPE,&Address,sizeof(UCHAR),NULL,0,&dwBytes,&ov)!=0);

    So now we’ll need an EndPoint, time to dig some more. Lets pop up USBDeview on the machine

    Wall of text time. Figure out the EndPoints

    First Camera

    
        =========================== USB Port1 ===========================
    
    Connection Status        : 0x01 (Device is connected)
    Port Chain               : 5-1
    PortAttributes           : 0x00000002 (Shared USB2)
    
          ======================== USB Device ========================
    
            +++++++++++++++++ Device Information ++++++++++++++++++
    Device Description       : Camera Neoden Tech.
    Device Path              : \\?\usb#vid_52cb&pid_52cb#5&1783ac8f&0&1#{a5dcbf10-6530-11d2-901f-00c04fb951ed}
    Device ID                : USB\VID_52CB&PID_52CB\5&1783AC8F&0&1
    Hardware IDs             : USB\Vid_52cb&Pid_52cb&Rev_0001 USB\Vid_52cb&Pid_52cb
    Driver KeyName           : {36FC9E60-C465-11CF-8056-444553540000}\0014 (GUID_DEVCLASS_USB)
    Driver                   : System32\Drivers\CYUSB3.sys (Version: 1.2.3.10  Date: 2014-09-18)
    Driver Inf               : C:\WINDOWS\inf\oem1.inf
    Legacy BusType           : PNPBus
    Class                    : USB
    Class GUID               : {36FC9E60-C465-11CF-8056-444553540000} (GUID_DEVCLASS_USB)
    Interface GUID           : {a5dcbf10-6530-11d2-901f-00c04fb951ed} (GUID_DEVINTERFACE_USB_DEVICE)
    Service                  : CYUSB3
    Enumerator               : USB
    Location Info            : B0001 Camera Shibz
    Manufacturer Info        : Cypress
    Capabilities             : 0x84 (Removable, SurpriseRemovalOK)
    Status                   : 0x0180600A (DN_DRIVER_LOADED, DN_STARTED, DN_DISABLEABLE, DN_REMOVABLE, DN_NT_ENUMERATOR, DN_NT_DRIVER)
    Problem Code             : 0
    Address                  : 1
    Power State              : D0 (supported: D0, D3, wake from D0, wake from D3)
    
            +++++++++++++++++ Registry USB Flags +++++++++++++++++
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\UsbFlags
     GlobalDisableSerNumGen  : REG_BINARY 01
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\UsbFlags\52CB52CB0001
     osvc                    : REG_BINARY 00 00
    
            ---------------- Connection Information ---------------
    Connection Index         : 0x01 (1)
    Connection Status        : 0x01 (DeviceConnected)
    Current Config Value     : 0x01
    Device Address           : 0x01 (1)
    Is Hub                   : 0x00 (no)
    Number Of Open Pipes     : 0x01 (1)
    Device Bus Speed         : 0x02 (High-Speed)
    Pipe0ScheduleOffset      : 0x00 (0)
    Data (HexDump)           : 01 00 00 00 12 01 00 01 00 00 00 40 CB 52 CB 52   ...........@.R.R
                               01 00 01 02 00 01 01 02 00 01 00 01 00 00 00 01   ................
                               00 00 00 07 05 82 02 00 02 00 00 00 00 00         ..............
    
        ---------------------- Device Descriptor ----------------------
    bLength                  : 0x12 (18 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x01 (Device Descriptor)
    bcdUSB                   : 0x100 (USB Version 1.00)
    bDeviceClass             : 0x00 (defined by the interface descriptors)
    bDeviceSubClass          : 0x00
    bDeviceProtocol          : 0x00
    bMaxPacketSize0          : 0x40 (64 bytes)
    idVendor                 : 0x52CB
    idProduct                : 0x52CB
    bcdDevice                : 0x0001
    iManufacturer            : 0x01 (String Descriptor 1)
     Language 0x0409         : "Neoden HangZhou"
    iProduct                 : 0x02 (String Descriptor 2)
     Language 0x0409         : "B0001 Camera Shibz"
    iSerialNumber            : 0x00 (No String Descriptor)
    bNumConfigurations       : 0x01 (1 Configuration)
    Data (HexDump)           : 12 01 00 01 00 00 00 40 CB 52 CB 52 01 00 01 02   .......@.R.R....
                               00 01                                             ..
    
        ------------------ Configuration Descriptor -------------------
    bLength                  : 0x09 (9 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x02 (Configuration Descriptor)
    wTotalLength             : 0x0019 (25 bytes)
    bNumInterfaces           : 0x01 (1 Interface)
    bConfigurationValue      : 0x01 (Configuration 1)
    iConfiguration           : 0x00 (No String Descriptor)
    bmAttributes             : 0x80
     D7: Bus Powered         : 0x01 (yes)
     D6: Self Powered        : 0x00 (no)
     D5: Remote Wakeup       : 0x00 (no)
     D4..0: Reserved, set 0  : 0x00
    MaxPower                 : 0x32 (100 mA)
    Data (HexDump)           : 09 02 19 00 01 01 00 80 32 09 04 00 00 01 FF 00   ........2.......
                               00 00 07 05 82 02 00 02 00                        .........
    
            ---------------- Interface Descriptor -----------------
    bLength                  : 0x09 (9 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x04 (Interface Descriptor)
    bInterfaceNumber         : 0x00
    bAlternateSetting        : 0x00
    bNumEndpoints            : 0x01 (1 Endpoint)
    bInterfaceClass          : 0xFF (Vendor Specific)
    bInterfaceSubClass       : 0x00
    bInterfaceProtocol       : 0x00
    iInterface               : 0x00 (No String Descriptor)
    Data (HexDump)           : 09 04 00 00 01 FF 00 00 00                        .........
    
            ----------------- Endpoint Descriptor -----------------
    bLength                  : 0x07 (7 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x05 (Endpoint Descriptor)
    bEndpointAddress         : 0x82 (Direction=IN EndpointID=2)
    bmAttributes             : 0x02 (TransferType=Bulk)
    wMaxPacketSize           : 0x0200 (max 512 bytes)
    bInterval                : 0x00 (never NAKs)
    Data (HexDump)           : 07 05 82 02 00 02 00                              .......
    
          -------------------- String Descriptors -------------------
                 ------ String Descriptor 0 ------
    bLength                  : 0x04 (4 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x03 (String Descriptor)
    Language ID[0]           : 0x0409 (English - United States)
    Data (HexDump)           : 04 03 09 04                                       ....
                 ------ String Descriptor 1 ------
    bLength                  : 0x20 (32 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x03 (String Descriptor)
    Language 0x0409          : "Neoden HangZhou"
    Data (HexDump)           : 20 03 4E 00 65 00 6F 00 64 00 65 00 6E 00 20 00    .N.e.o.d.e.n. .
                               48 00 61 00 6E 00 67 00 5A 00 68 00 6F 00 75 00   H.a.n.g.Z.h.o.u.
                 ------ String Descriptor 2 ------
    bLength                  : 0x26 (38 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x03 (String Descriptor)
    Language 0x0409          : "B0001 Camera Shibz"
    Data (HexDump)           : 26 03 42 00 30 00 30 00 30 00 31 00 20 00 43 00   &.B.0.0.0.1. .C.
                               61 00 6D 00 65 00 72 00 61 00 20 00 53 00 68 00   a.m.e.r.a. .S.h.
                               69 00 62 00 7A 00                                 i.b.z.

    Second camera

    
    
        =========================== USB Port8 ===========================
    
    Connection Status        : 0x01 (Device is connected)
    Port Chain               : 5-8
    PortAttributes           : 0x00000002 (Shared USB2)
    
          ======================== USB Device ========================
    
            +++++++++++++++++ Device Information ++++++++++++++++++
    Device Description       : Camera Neoden Tech.
    Device Path              : \\?\usb#vid_52cb&pid_52cb#5&1783ac8f&0&8#{a5dcbf10-6530-11d2-901f-00c04fb951ed}
    Device ID                : USB\VID_52CB&PID_52CB\5&1783AC8F&0&8
    Hardware IDs             : USB\Vid_52cb&Pid_52cb&Rev_0001 USB\Vid_52cb&Pid_52cb
    Driver KeyName           : {36FC9E60-C465-11CF-8056-444553540000}\0015 (GUID_DEVCLASS_USB)
    Driver                   : System32\Drivers\CYUSB3.sys (Version: 1.2.3.10  Date: 2014-09-18)
    Driver Inf               : C:\WINDOWS\inf\oem114.inf
    Legacy BusType           : PNPBus
    Class                    : USB
    Class GUID               : {36FC9E60-C465-11CF-8056-444553540000} (GUID_DEVCLASS_USB)
    Interface GUID           : {a5dcbf10-6530-11d2-901f-00c04fb951ed} (GUID_DEVINTERFACE_USB_DEVICE)
    Service                  : CYUSB3
    Enumerator               : USB
    Location Info            : H0001 Camera Shibz
    Manufacturer Info        : Cypress
    Capabilities             : 0x84 (Removable, SurpriseRemovalOK)
    Status                   : 0x0180600A (DN_DRIVER_LOADED, DN_STARTED, DN_DISABLEABLE, DN_REMOVABLE, DN_NT_ENUMERATOR, DN_NT_DRIVER)
    Problem Code             : 0
    Address                  : 8
    Power State              : D0 (supported: D0, D3, wake from D0, wake from D3)
    
            +++++++++++++++++ Registry USB Flags +++++++++++++++++
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\UsbFlags
     GlobalDisableSerNumGen  : REG_BINARY 01
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\UsbFlags\52CB52CB0001
     osvc                    : REG_BINARY 00 00
    
            ---------------- Connection Information ---------------
    Connection Index         : 0x08 (8)
    Connection Status        : 0x01 (DeviceConnected)
    Current Config Value     : 0x01
    Device Address           : 0x04 (4)
    Is Hub                   : 0x00 (no)
    Number Of Open Pipes     : 0x01 (1)
    Device Bus Speed         : 0x02 (High-Speed)
    Pipe0ScheduleOffset      : 0x00 (0)
    Data (HexDump)           : 08 00 00 00 12 01 00 01 00 00 00 40 CB 52 CB 52   ...........@.R.R
                               01 00 01 02 00 01 01 02 00 04 00 01 00 00 00 01   ................
                               00 00 00 07 05 82 02 00 02 00 00 00 00 00         ..............
    
        ---------------------- Device Descriptor ----------------------
    bLength                  : 0x12 (18 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x01 (Device Descriptor)
    bcdUSB                   : 0x100 (USB Version 1.00)
    bDeviceClass             : 0x00 (defined by the interface descriptors)
    bDeviceSubClass          : 0x00
    bDeviceProtocol          : 0x00
    bMaxPacketSize0          : 0x40 (64 bytes)
    idVendor                 : 0x52CB
    idProduct                : 0x52CB
    bcdDevice                : 0x0001
    iManufacturer            : 0x01 (String Descriptor 1)
     Language 0x0409         : "Neoden HangZhou"
    iProduct                 : 0x02 (String Descriptor 2)
     Language 0x0409         : "H0001 Camera Shibz"
    iSerialNumber            : 0x00 (No String Descriptor)
    bNumConfigurations       : 0x01 (1 Configuration)
    Data (HexDump)           : 12 01 00 01 00 00 00 40 CB 52 CB 52 01 00 01 02   .......@.R.R....
                               00 01                                             ..
    
        ------------------ Configuration Descriptor -------------------
    bLength                  : 0x09 (9 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x02 (Configuration Descriptor)
    wTotalLength             : 0x0019 (25 bytes)
    bNumInterfaces           : 0x01 (1 Interface)
    bConfigurationValue      : 0x01 (Configuration 1)
    iConfiguration           : 0x00 (No String Descriptor)
    bmAttributes             : 0x80
     D7: Bus Powered         : 0x01 (yes)
     D6: Self Powered        : 0x00 (no)
     D5: Remote Wakeup       : 0x00 (no)
     D4..0: Reserved, set 0  : 0x00
    MaxPower                 : 0x32 (100 mA)
    Data (HexDump)           : 09 02 19 00 01 01 00 80 32 09 04 00 00 01 FF 00   ........2.......
                               00 00 07 05 82 02 00 02 00                        .........
    
            ---------------- Interface Descriptor -----------------
    bLength                  : 0x09 (9 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x04 (Interface Descriptor)
    bInterfaceNumber         : 0x00
    bAlternateSetting        : 0x00
    bNumEndpoints            : 0x01 (1 Endpoint)
    bInterfaceClass          : 0xFF (Vendor Specific)
    bInterfaceSubClass       : 0x00
    bInterfaceProtocol       : 0x00
    iInterface               : 0x00 (No String Descriptor)
    Data (HexDump)           : 09 04 00 00 01 FF 00 00 00                        .........
    
            ----------------- Endpoint Descriptor -----------------
    bLength                  : 0x07 (7 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x05 (Endpoint Descriptor)
    bEndpointAddress         : 0x82 (Direction=IN EndpointID=2)
    bmAttributes             : 0x02 (TransferType=Bulk)
    wMaxPacketSize           : 0x0200 (max 512 bytes)
    bInterval                : 0x00 (never NAKs)
    Data (HexDump)           : 07 05 82 02 00 02 00                              .......
    
          -------------------- String Descriptors -------------------
                 ------ String Descriptor 0 ------
    bLength                  : 0x04 (4 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x03 (String Descriptor)
    Language ID[0]           : 0x0409 (English - United States)
    Data (HexDump)           : 04 03 09 04                                       ....
                 ------ String Descriptor 1 ------
    bLength                  : 0x20 (32 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x03 (String Descriptor)
    Language 0x0409          : "Neoden HangZhou"
    Data (HexDump)           : 20 03 4E 00 65 00 6F 00 64 00 65 00 6E 00 20 00    .N.e.o.d.e.n. .
                               48 00 61 00 6E 00 67 00 5A 00 68 00 6F 00 75 00   H.a.n.g.Z.h.o.u.
                 ------ String Descriptor 2 ------
    bLength                  : 0x26 (38 bytes)
    bDescriptorType          : 0x03 (String Descriptor)
    Language 0x0409          : "H0001 Camera Shibz"
    Data (HexDump)           : 26 03 48 00 30 00 30 00 30 00 31 00 20 00 43 00   &.H.0.0.0.1. .C.
                               61 00 6D 00 65 00 72 00 61 00 20 00 53 00 68 00   a.m.e.r.a. .S.h.
                               69 00 62 00 7A 00                                 i.b.z.
    

    Thats a lot of data, but there are the endpoints, scanning with a quick cheat with the CyUsb API just running around the endpoints til it was valid, but that doesn’t give me the data as fast as this does.

    Sniffing DeviceIO using a simplified Test App

    Next thing to try is sniffing the DeviceIO going to the cameras, but there will likely be a lot of noise and the Neoden test app doesn’t seem to succesfully grab any data, so lets make a quick app, new project  in VS2017 again. Making a console app

    image

    Added the videoinput/opencv libs and headers for video capture, and create a simple image display

    #include <iostream>

    #include <stdint.h>

    #include <stdlib.h>

    #include “opencv2/highgui/highgui.hpp”

    #include “opencv2/imgproc/imgproc.hpp”

    #include “opencv2/opencv.hpp”

    #pragma comment(lib,”comctl32.lib”)

    #pragma comment(lib,”gdi32.lib”)

    #pragma comment(lib,”vfw32.lib”)

    using namespace cv;

    using namespace std;

    int main()

    {
            int g_width = 1024, g_height = 1024;

        Mat cameraFrame ( g_width, g_height, CV_8UC3, Scalar ( 10, 100, 150 ) );;
            cv::Mat greyMat;
            flip ( cameraFrame, cameraFrame, 1 );
            cv::cvtColor ( cameraFrame, greyMat, CV_BGR2GRAY );
            Size size ( g_width, g_height );
            resize ( greyMat, greyMat, size );

        imshow ( “camera”, greyMat );

        cv::waitKey ( 0 )

    }

    Creating a .lib and .h for a DLL

    Next step is linking to the NeodenCamera.dll which we can do with LoadLibrary or create a header and .lib so lets do that.

    dumpbin /exports NeodenCamera.dll

    take these

       1    0 00001840 img_capture
         2    1 000017D0 img_init
         3    2 00001870 img_led
         4    3 000019F0 img_read
         5    4 00001A30 img_readAsy
         6    5 000018B0 img_reset
         7    6 000018F0 img_set_exp
         8    7 00001930 img_set_gain
         9    8 00001970 img_set_lt
        10   9 000019B0 img_set_wh

    convert it to

    LIBRARY NeodenCamera.dll

    EXPORTS
                img_capture
                img_init
                img_led
                img_read
                img_readAsy
                img_reset
                img_set_exp
                img_set_gain
                img_set_lt
                img_set_wh

    save it as NeodenCamera.def, from VC folder use  (run vcvars32.bat)

    lib /def:NeodenCamera.def /out:NeodenCamera.lib /machine:x86

    This makes the .lib and .exp file, we just need the .LIB, add it to your project.

    Finally we need the prototypes for the function, IDA or such can help with that. Typically these sorts of DLLs  use stack based argument passing as in standard C so they’re easier to figure out. if its C++ and they’re using mangled names you can demangle for at least the basics. There are lots of tutorials on IDA so rather than focus there i’ll just kickstart with what is known so far

    bool _cdecl img_capture ( int which_camera );

    int _cdecl img_init();

    bool _cdecl img_led ( int which_camera, int16_t mode );

    int _cdecl img_read ( int which_camera, unsigned char * pFrameBuffer, int BytesToRead, int dwMilliseconds);

    int _cdecl img_readAsy ( int which_camera, unsigned char * pFrameBuffer, int BytesReturned, int dwMilliseconds);

    int _cdecl img_reset ( int which_camera );

    bool _cdecl img_set_exp ( int which_camera, int16_t exposure );

    bool _cdecl img_set_gain ( int which_camera, int16_t gain );

    bool _cdecl img_set_lt ( int which_camera, int16_t a2, int16_t a3 );

    bool _cdecl img_set_wh ( int which_camera, int16_t w, int16_t h );

    these are C linkage, the may have to be set to extern “C”  depending on the setup

    Starting here, calling img_init() and noting the results . Running the app you should get a warning about the NeodenCamera.dll missing which is expected, so add the dll to the path or to the same folder as the test exe

    calling img_init()

    bool ret = img_init();

    printf ( “%d = img_ini\nt”, ret );

    yields

    DLL 1->DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH

    USB╔Φ▒╕┴¼╜╙╩²[2]!
    ╔Φ▒╕┤·║┼[0]  = B0001 Camera Shibz
    ╔Φ▒╕┤·║┼[1]  = H0001 Camera Shibz

    1 = img_init

    so far so good, but since that  that is a function with no parameters and hard to mess up. but it means the .def and .lib worked

    Lets try to read the image from camera 5 (UP)

    unsigned char buffer[ 1024 * 1024  ];

    int main()

    {
           int g_width = 1024, g_height = 1024;
           DWORD bytesToRead= g_width * g_height;
           bool ret = img_init();
           memset ( &buffer[0], 0xaa, sizeof ( buffer ) );
           printf ( “%d = img_init\n”, ret );
           // camera indices are to be 1 and 5(looking up)
           ret = img_readAsy ( 5, &buffer[0], bytesToRead, 1000 );
           printf ( “%d = img_readAsy, %d\n”, ret, bytesToRead);
           Mat cameraFrame ( Size ( g_width, g_height ), CV_8UC1, buffer, 1024 );
           imshow ( “camera”, cameraFrame );

          cv::waitKey ( 0 );

    }

    image

    Great there is is the UP camera, I also think we have to init the width and height first. but after a run of the neoden software first and the settings stayed.

    Lets try the down camera next, switch the 5 to 1

    image

    Neat.

    Next add the width and height set, which seems to work

    int main()

    {
            int g_width = 1024, g_height = 1024;
            DWORD bytesToRead = g_width * g_height;

        memset ( &buffer[0], 0xaa, sizeof ( buffer ) );

        bool ret = img_init();
          printf ( “%d = img_init\n”, ret );

        ret = img_set_wh ( 1, g_width, g_height );
          printf ( “%d = img_set_wh(1,w,h)\n”, ret );

        ret = img_set_wh ( 5, g_width, g_height );
          printf ( “%d = img_set_wh(5,w,h)\n”, ret );

        // camera indices are to be 1 and 5(looking up)
          ret = img_readAsy ( 1, &buffer[0], bytesToRead, 1000 );
          printf ( “%d = img_readAsy, %d\n”, ret, bytesToRead );

        Mat cameraFrame ( Size ( g_width, g_height ), CV_8UC1, buffer, 1024 );

        imshow ( “camera”, cameraFrame );

        cv::waitKey ( 0 );

    }

    Thats enough to get started, the simpler the better.

    Sniffing DeviceIO

    The PNP software starts up with

    img_init
    img_set_exp 1 25
    img_set_gain) 1 8
    img_set_lt 1 624 496
    img_set_wh 1 32 32
    img_init
    img_set_exp 5 100
    img_set_lt 5 128 0
    img_set_wh 5 1024 1024

    Previously it wasn’t noted that the software calls init twice. also odd size for camera 1

    From the test app

    img_set_exp) 1 25
    img_set_gain) 1 8
    img_set_lt) 1 128 0
    img_set_wh) 1 1024 1024
    img_readAsy) 1 0x30d0030 1048576 1000 ms

    Which all matches

    Another great tool for spying on API’s is API Monitor using the X32 version and turning off everything but DeviceIoControl then running the test appl, clearing out the trace until the image appears, then switching the camera we see the following

    Use the binoculars to bring up the search after loading X32 version of API monitor

     image

    Search for DeviceIOControl (case insensitive) and then check them off in the API Filter

    image

    Then either use monitor new process or enable the capture of newly launched processes and it’ll ask to monitor the new process

    image

    Now run Neoden4 software or the TestApp previously made ( add published to github link)

    image

    Then API Monitor shows you the filtered functions we’re interested in so press the various manual test functions to see the results, it’ll also show the buffers being passed and the parameters.

    DeviceIoControl ( 0x000000b8, 0x220024, 0x00c00020, 524326, 0x00c00020, 524326, 0x0018fc34, 0x0018fc98 )

    FALSE    997 = Overlapped I/O operation is in progress.     0.0000831

    DeviceIoControl ( 0x000000b8, 0x220024, 0x03840020, 524326, 0x03840020, 524326, 0x0018fc34, 0x0018fcac )

    FALSE    997 = Overlapped I/O operation is in progress.     0.0000560



    DeviceIoControl ( 0x000000b8, 0x00220020 , 0x002ca348, 44, 0x002ca348, 44, 0x0018fbd0, 0x0018fbf8 )
    FALSE    997 = Overlapped I/O operation is in progress.     0.0000057

    for img_led(5,0)

    DeviceIoControl ( 0x000000bc, 0x00220020  , 0x0310a348, 44, 0x0310a348, 44, 0x0063fc54, 0x0063fc7c )

    FALSE    997 = Overlapped I/O operation is in progress.     0.0000213
    0000  40 b2 00 00 00 00 06 00 0a 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 26 00 00 00 0022  06 00 00 00 b2 01 00 00 00 00        

    for img_led(5,1)

    DeviceIoControl ( 0x000000bc,0x00220020    , 0x0310a348, 44, 0x0310a348, 44, 0x0063fc54, 0x0063fc7c )

    FALSE    997 = Overlapped I/O operation is in progress.     0.0000239
    0000  40 b2 01 00 00 00 06 00 0a 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 26 00 00 00 0022  06 00 00 00 b2 01 01 00 00 00       

    Marked the differences, i’m not sure if img_led is used, or if i’m using it right anyway these camera boards tend to have a cypress FX CY7C68013 and either an fpga (if they’re UVC or need a lot of processing) or straight hooked to the GPIOs to do triggers, LED flash etc. So that could be where they are or it could be attached from the RS232 and the motor control board.

    The Flash LEDs are not controlled via the camera dll, i think they’re a throwback to another version since we know the LEDs are connected to the head motor control board and controlled via CAN bus from the primary motor control board. They are included in my test harness from for serial control.



    As a note be aware of the EP0 control since that also controls how the FX is programmed and erased


    For capture of up(5)

    DeviceIoControl ( 0x000000bc, 0x00220024, 0x03840020, 524326, 0x03840020, 524326, 0x0063fb84, 0x0063fbe8 )


    FALSE    997 = Overlapped I/O operation is in progress.     0.0000777


    DeviceIoControl ( 0x000000bc, 0x00220024, 0x03960020, 524326, 0x03960020, 524326, 0x0063fb84, 0x0063fbfc )
        FALSE    997 = Overlapped I/O operation is in progress.     0.0000560


    Partial Buffer


    0000  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 82 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 26 00 00 00
    0022  00 00 08 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01
    0044  01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01
    0066  01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 00 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01
    0088  00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01
    00aa  01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01
    00cc  01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01
    00ee  01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 00 01 00 01

    DeviceIoControl ( 0x000000bc, 0x00220020  , 0x0310a348, 44, 0x0310a348, 44, 0x0063fb20, 0x0063fb48 ) 


    FALSE    997 = Overlapped I/O operation is in progress.     0.0000063


    0000  40 b1 00 00 00 00 06 00 0a 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 26 00 00 00
    0022  06 00 00 00 b1 fb 00 00 00 00
           

           

    The image buffer looks about right, since it is mostly a black image, refreshing it would give a similar result (camera senors are a good source of noise)

    0x00220024  is 0x22, IOCTL_ADAPT_SEND_NON_EP0_TRANSFER. buffered, any file


    This IOCTL command is used to request Bulk, Interrupt or Isochronous data transfers across corresponding USB device endpoints.


    0x00220020 is IOCTL_ADAPT_SEND_EP0_CONTROL_TRANSFER. buffered, any file


    This command sends a control request to the default Control endpoint, endpoint zero.

    So all making sense so far, back to the driver.


    Decoding the above for IOCTL_ADAPT_SEND_EP0_CONTROL_TRANSFER

    union {
           struct {
           UCHAR Recipient:5;
           UCHAR Type:2;
           UCHAR Direction:1;
           } bmRequest;
           UCHAR bmReq;


    };


    bmRequest.Recipient = 0; // Device


    bmRequest.Type = 2; // Vendor


    bmRequest.Direction = 1; // IN command (from Device to Host)


    int iXmitBufSize = sizeof(SINGLE_TRANSFER) + bufLen; // The size of the two-part  structure


    UCHAR *pXmitBuf = new UCHAR[iXmitBufSize]; // Allocate the memory


    ZeroMemory(pXmitBuf, iXmitBufSize);


    PSINGLE_TRANSFER pTransfer = (PSINGLE_TRANSFER)pXmitBuf; // The SINGLE_TRANSFER comes
        first


    pTransfer->SetupPacket.bmRequest = bmReq;


    pTransfer->SetupPacket.bRequest = ReqCode;


    pTransfer->SetupPacket.wValue = Value;


    pTransfer->SetupPacket.wIndex = Index;


    pTransfer->SetupPacket.wLength = bufLen;


    pTransfer->SetupPacket.ulTimeOut = TimeOut / 1000;


    pTransfer->Reserved = 0;


    pTransfer->ucEndpointAddress = 0x00; // Control pipe


    pTransfer->IsoPacketLength = 0;


    pTransfer->BufferOffset = sizeof (SINGLE_TRANSFER);


    pTransfer->BufferLength = bufLen;

    and IOCTL_ADAPT_SEND_NON_EP0_TRANSFER

    PUCHAR CCyBulkEndPoint::BeginDataXfer(PCHAR buf, LONG bufLen, OVERLAPPED *ov)


    {


    if (hDevice == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) return NULL;


    int iXmitBufSize = sizeof (SINGLE_TRANSFER) + bufLen;


    PUCHAR pXmitBuf = new UCHAR[iXmitBufSize];


    ZeroMemory(pXmitBuf, iXmitBufSize);


    PSINGLE_TRANSFER pTransfer = (PSINGLE_TRANSFER)pXmitBuf;


    pTransfer->Reserved = 0;


    pTransfer->ucEndpointAddress = Address;


    pTransfer->IsoPacketLength = 0;


    pTransfer->BufferOffset = sizeof (SINGLE_TRANSFER);


    pTransfer->BufferLength = bufLen;


    // Copy buf  into pXmitBuf


    UCHAR *ptr = (PUCHAR) pTransfer + pTransfer->BufferOffset;


    memcpy(ptr, buf, bufLen);


    DWORD dwReturnBytes;


    DeviceIoControl(hDevice, IOCTL_ADAPT_SEND_NON_EP0_TRANSFER,
                      pXmitBuf, iXmitBufSize,
                      pXmitBuf, iXmitBufSize,
                      &dwReturnBytes, ov);


    return  pXmitBuf;


    }

    So for the image transfer it looks like it is using

    CCyUSBEndPoint::BeginBufferedXfer

    So we can just follow the call chain CyApi and follow it up to

    bool CCyControlEndPoint::Write(PUCHAR buf, LONG &bufLen)

    Backtracking a tad


    On a personal note I have used IDA for a while but sometimes will forget to use it with all the tools it has and just manually convert all the offsets. But there are useful tools like FLIRT and people have tried to put together libraries of FLIRT databases, but there are a lot of libraries to do that for.


    Luckily for us Cypress publishes the PDB file for CyUsb3.sys so if you load it into IDA it’ll create all the structures that are in the PDB for you. After loading it and letting IDA figure itself all out, dump the typeinfo to an IDC, then reload the app(NeodenCamera.dll) that uses the CyUSB3.sys which is likely different and execute the IDC you just made, that will transfer the structs to the new RE project but not the offsets etc will will be wrong. Now keep a copy of the IDC somewhere you’ll forget all about for next time


    As an example the _SINGLE_TRANSFER structure which has a union (also mapped)

    00000000 _SINGLE_TRANSFER struc ; (sizeof=0x26, align=0x2, mappedto_45)

    00000000 ___u0           $902C784530A83C47F9612DF5432F758B ?

    0000000C reserved        db ?

    0000000D ucEndpointAddress db ?

    0000000E NtStatus        dd ?

    00000012 UsbdStatus      dd ?

    00000016 IsoPacketOffset dd ?

    0000001A IsoPacketLength dd ?

    0000001E BufferOffset    dd ?

    00000022 BufferLength    dd ?

    00000026 _SINGLE_TRANSFER ends

    Typing  that in manually the first time, after forgetting the union… then redoing it, then thought there must be a better way, and of course there is, and this is one of those ways, but no doubt next time it’ll just get brute forced again

    Now apply that struct to the code

    SINGLE_TRANSFER *__thiscall CCyIsocEndPoint__BeginBufferedXfer(int this, void *inputBuffer, size_t bytesToWrite, LPOVERLAPPED lpOverlapped)


    {
          int v4; // ebx
          int blocks; // esi
          unsigned int v7; // edi
          _SINGLE_TRANSFER *pTransfer; // esi
          DWORD dwReturnBytes; // [esp+Ch] [ebp-8h]
          DWORD iXmitBufSize; // [esp+10h] [ebp-4h]


      v4 = this;
          if ( *(_DWORD *)(this + 4) == -1 )            // HDEVICE
            return 0;
          blocks = (signed int)bytesToWrite / *(unsigned __int16 *)(this + 12);
          if ( (signed int)bytesToWrite % *(unsigned __int16 *)(this + 12) )
            ++blocks;
          if ( !blocks )
            return 0;
          v7 = 8 * blocks;
          iXmitBufSize = 8 * blocks + bytesToWrite + 38;
          pTransfer = (_SINGLE_TRANSFER *)operator new(iXmitBufSize);
          memset(pTransfer, 0, iXmitBufSize);
          pTransfer->reserved = 0;
          pTransfer->ucEndpointAddress = *(_BYTE *)(v4 + 10);
          pTransfer->IsoPacketLength = v7;
          v7 += 38;
          pTransfer->BufferOffset = v7;
          pTransfer->IsoPacketOffset = 38;              // SINGLE_TRANSFER
          pTransfer->BufferLength = bytesToWrite;
          memcpy(&pTransfer->SetupPacket.bmReqType._bf0 + v7, inputBuffer, bytesToWrite);
          dwReturnBytes = 0;
          DeviceIoControl(
            *(HANDLE *)(v4 + 4),
            0x220024u,
            pTransfer,
            iXmitBufSize,
            pTransfer,
            iXmitBufSize,
            &dwReturnBytes,
            lpOverlapped);                              // IOCTL_ADAPT_SEND_NON_EP0_TRANSFER
          *(_DWORD *)(v4 + 32) = GetLastError();
          return pTransfer;


    }

    The Cypress SDK contains the source for that function, let us see how it compares

    PUCHAR CCyUSBEndPoint::BeginBufferedXfer ( PUCHAR buf, LONG bufLen, OVERLAPPED *ov )

    {
            if ( hDevice == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) { return NULL; }

        int iXmitBufSize = sizeof ( SINGLE_TRANSFER ) + bufLen;
            PUCHAR pXmitBuf = new UCHAR[iXmitBufSize];
            ZeroMemory ( pXmitBuf, iXmitBufSize );

        PSINGLE_TRANSFER pTransfer = ( PSINGLE_TRANSFER ) pXmitBuf;
            pTransfer->ucEndpointAddress = Address;
            pTransfer->IsoPacketLength = 0;
            pTransfer->BufferOffset = sizeof ( SINGLE_TRANSFER );
            pTransfer->BufferLength = bufLen;

        // Copy buf into pXmitBuf
            UCHAR *ptr = ( PUCHAR ) pTransfer + pTransfer->BufferOffset;
            memcpy ( ptr, buf, bufLen );

        DWORD dwReturnBytes;

        DeviceIoControl ( hDevice,
                              IOCTL_ADAPT_SEND_NON_EP0_TRANSFER,
                              pXmitBuf,
                              iXmitBufSize,
                              pXmitBuf,
                              iXmitBufSize,
                              &dwReturnBytes,
                              ov );

        UsbdStatus = pTransfer->UsbdStatus;
            NtStatus   = pTransfer->NtStatus;

        LastError = GetLastError();
            return pXmitBuf;

    }

    The compiler has optimised some things away and made some little tricks but it is close.



    
    

    Reading an I2C EEPROM

    It’s definitely been Cypress week around here, with the RGB Blinky Ball (which has a cypress psoc4) we wante d to ship a programmer, the Cypress one is $90 so not that. A bit banging version for the FX2LP ecists so we hooked that one up and it worked great. There is a a fork here PSOC

    These boards are dirt cheap and are great for either reading logic at high speed or writing it.

    image

    It also comes with an AT24C128 eeprom for boot strapping the FX2LP.

    image

    Recalling that the Microchip PICCKIT can read EEPROMs with, and just happen to have one the desk for the One Key Keyboard.

    It needs this software.
    http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/PICkit3%20Programmer%20Application%20v3.10.zip

    The I2C Address of the chip is set as

    A0 = 1 A1 = 0 A2 = 0 = 0xA3


    image

    Next you have to mod the PICKIT

    > 24LC I2C bus devices:         Bus Speed-                 400kHz with Tools -> Fast Programming checked                 100kHz with Tools -> Fast Programming unchecked

            NOTE: Bus pullups are required for all
                  programming operations.  400kHz requires
                  2k Ohm pullups.

            NOTE: The I2C (24LC) Serial EEPROM devices require the following PICkit 3
                  hardware changes to work properly:

                  Remove TR3 from the PICkit 3.
                  Remove R50 from the PICkit 3.

            Connections for 24LC devices
            ---------------------------------------
            PICkit 3 Pin             24LC Device Pin (DIP)
            (2) Vdd                  8 Vcc
            (3) GND                  4 Vss
            (5) PGC                  6 SCL (driven as push-pull)
            (6) PGM(LVP)             5 SDA (requires pullup)
                                     7 WP - disabled (GND)
                                     1, 2, 3 Ax pins
                                        Connect to Vdd or GND per
                                        datasheet and to set address

    url

    Load this “OS” into it

    image

    image

    Hook up power, ground , sda and scl ,  Make sure before you add power you start a capture, since it only sends and clocks when transmitting you can trigger and capture or just run a few second capture that’ll give you time to switch on the power.

    The PicKit 3 is meant to be modded , trying it first. remove the R50 4.7K, and the 5.0V Zener at TR3. The software continually resets the 3.3V to 5V so watch for that.  This is a clone of the Pickit 3 the lower right MELF is the diode TR3

    imageT

    This didn’t seem to work very well and the data just reapeated, and was very sparse i’ve seen enough code in binary to know its not right. Figured it was worth a shot.

    So next to try is the Ginkgo box which is a USB to CAN/I2C/SPI/GPIO test box it is useful for all sorts of things and originally it was used to do automated testing on some SPI control systems. But also a no go I suspect it was the CAN firmware but the doc’s are less than clear about it (it was. you can reflash any firmware on to it and even though the label says I2C/SPI/CAN it has internal checks note: add to list  of next projects also there is an internal jumper if you set it you can recover the bad flash)

    So lets just use a Logic Analyser, coincedentally we made a mini logic analyser that was based on the same 68013A chip at NSL called the AnnaLogic which is plenty capable to do this, but lets use\ the Logic Pro 16 instead.

    image

    It pops out immediatately and now it is easy to recognise the fimrmware since all the fx2lp bin’s I’ve seen to date have had a 222222 sequence before the last few bytes., next is to convert the trace from the Saleae to a bin and load it into my FX2 dev board. The text file export has the time stap and address, followed by the data byte, just extract that column after removing the setup code.

    Time [s],Packet ID,Address,Data,Read/Write,ACK/NAK
    0.343118400000000,,0xA1,,Read,NAK
    0.343347040000000,1,0xA3,0x32,Read,NAK
    0.343575520000000,2,0xA2,0x00,Write,ACK
    0.343681120000000,2,0xA2,0x00,Write,ACK
    0.343909600000000,3,0xA3,0xC2,Read,ACK

    C2 is the start of the EEPROM

    The logs show that after a tiny pause from the firmware download to the FX2LP it starts sending out on I2C address 0xBA

    0.725436960000000,3,0xA3,0x00,Read,NAK

    time gap

    352480000000,4,0xBA,0x01,Write,ACK
    0.738503360000000,4,0xBA,0x00,Write,ACK
    0.738653760000000,4,0xBA,0x8C,Write,ACK

    Noting that is likely a camera on the I2C addres 0xBA, so searching for I2C Camera 0xBA and the first hit is the MT9M001

    Array Format (5:4): 1,280H x 1,024V
    Monochrome sensor
    Slave address 0xBA (SADDR=0)

    It is pretty close to what we expected.  This camera is very popular for interfacing to the FX2LP. There are apparently different versions of the Neoden4 with a different camera, and that vendor uses similar sensors too. But we don’t really need the model yet.

    On that MT9M001 sensor 0x8C is a reserved address, so not sure if its a good match

    Next task on the list is to sniff the CAN busses, and because of the previous automotive woirk NSLLabs posses every CAN adapter known to humanity, so that should be straightforward..

    …more later…

     
    • nope 7:33 pm on March 7, 2019 Permalink | Reply

      password to change language
      #python
      code=””
      mac=”aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff”
      macInt = [int(t,16) for t in mac.split(“:”)]
      for i in range(3):
      t = macInt[i*2] + macInt[i*2+1]
      code+=”{0:02x}”.format(t)
      print(code)
      code=”neoden2015 {0} Language”.format(code)
      password=binascii.crc32(code.encode(‘utf-8’))% (1<<32)
      print(password)

    • charliex 9:21 pm on March 7, 2019 Permalink | Reply

      Nice thanks

    • Louis 4:24 pm on March 22, 2019 Permalink | Reply

      Amazing work my friend! Last night I started to tinker with my NeoDen4 and googled KYSYSProtect and came across your post. Tons of good info in this post, and great job on the Eagle ULP additions, as well! If you continue to dive into the NeoDen4, please continue to share you findings! Thank you from a fellow owner 🙂

    • Louis 11:37 pm on March 26, 2019 Permalink | Reply

      Something I have found that may help others – when running the software on a clean Windows install (tried 10, 7 and XP while I was having the issue) the software spits out an error, written in Chinese, for imgdll.dll. This error, which translates to the inability to load imgdll.dll, seems to impact at least the upward flash, even though the DLL functions don’t seem indicate a correlation. Using a dependency walker and Process Explorer, I could not find the root cause. Long story short, you must install the Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Redistributable package to eliminate the issue.

    • Beb 8:29 am on June 11, 2019 Permalink | Reply

      Hello,

      Looking forward to you getting the can bus data, do want to try and run a feeder via the can. Thanks in advance if you get this data

  • charliex 4:15 am on December 6, 2017 Permalink | Reply  

    light.co L16 camera, fixing the lumen software 

     

    i picked up one of those L16 cameras from light.co  it arrived last week , charged it, plugged it in and installed the windows version of the lumen(beta) software.

    took a few pictures, downloaded them  and clicked to open, and the software crashed, over and over. Opened a support “email/website” to their “award winning support” waited a few days, nothing, submitted again, still nothing, so since i’d like to see what the camera did i figured i’d take a look and see what was causing the crash..

    i’d taken a few different pics over the days, but could only download them and not view them.

    so this is what it did, clicking view always crashed it.

     

    since it’s the 5th, i got the camera mid last week and wanted to see the results, and still nada from their support.

    i clicked ‘Debug’, which opened up my visual studio, then took a look at the a crash, it is in the ceres solver, invalid instruction, so i see where this is going and i take a look at the disassembly and sure enough it is AVX(sandy bridge)  instruction which my older i7 CPU doesn’t support (contrary to the claims of the light.co website)

    Ceres Solver is an open source library

    http://ceres-solver.org/

    i took a look at their version, a quick strings in the ceres.dll

    c:\Users\srv-build\jenkins\workspace\CI-multi-platform-v2\CI_Projects\CI-WIN\3rdparty\ceres-solver-1.12.0\internal\ceres\trust_region_preprocessor.cc

    the code is here

    http://ceres-solver.org/installation.html

    but since i’m using the windows version i grabbed this build,  (using submodules to get glog)

    https://github.com/tbennun/ceres-windows

    it needs Eigen

     http://eigen.tuxfamily.org/index.php?title=Main_Page

    grabbed 3.3.4 of Eigen, extracted it to the same folder as the ceres-2015.sln file  and then renamed it to eigen

    next opened the ceres-2015.sln in visual studio 2015, selected release and x64 build, built it and copied the ceres.dll to the lumen.exe folder.  after making a backup of the old non working one.

    re ran it , opened the files again, and picked a picture, tested the focus .. and it worked.

    and now i can view the images for the camera

    the software is really, really slow, so i’d imagine they just switched on whatever optimisation settings they could without realising what that really meant, dat jenkins build server.

    as for the camera itself, sorry to say but so far the software is indicative of the hardware, but i probably need some time to get used to it.

     

    now i wonder where my award is

    cheers,

     

     

     

     

    since its being asked for, https://github.com/charlie-x/lumen-ceres-dll i put it here. its built exactly as i described it above

     
    • ralph hayon 11:47 pm on December 12, 2017 Permalink | Reply

      Hi, I am having the same problem, but I don’t have Visual Studio to do a build. Just got my L16 camera and seeing exactly the same issue with Lumen crashing on my older i7 computer. Found your post. Can I get your copy of ceres.dll ? You should get an award for figuring this out. I emailed the light.co and heard nothing and did a simple google search and found what you did! Great job! Paid alot of money for this camera and can’t even look at the pics on my Windows computer.

      • charliex 11:58 pm on December 12, 2017 Permalink | Reply

        yeah sure no problem, i sent the info to light support as well last week, and they stopped responding , so no idea.

        cheers

  • charliex 8:05 pm on August 14, 2016 Permalink | Reply  

    ChipCon SmartRF04 EB firmware reflashing 

    A while ago I picked up a CC1110 from eBay for cheap as we were looking at doing an IM-ME clone, Eventually got around back to the C11xx work.

    ChipCon were bought by TI in about 2006, for the CC family, see the clue? the devboard I have is actually from the pre TI days, so I was amazed when in 2016 I downloaded the TI Smart RF software it connected and saw the board. The two dev boards also actually worked so lucked out on eBay again…

    On plugging in it asked to update the firmware, which I did. . After that I could use Smart RF to control the board, but not from the board itself, no LCD display. So I went off and looked for old versions of Smart RF and older HEX files, no luck , OEMs always want to get rid of that stuff, they should make it all available but it is a support headache from the help vampyres, and TI’s forums had a few similar questions that mostly dead ended.

    So I looked into the host chip, it’s a SI 8051F32, so needs a yet another debugger interface, I looked it up and see its USB Debug Adapter for about $30, not bad. It has an unusual shape and I recall having one, so I went and dug around and found it in a box, I actually had took it out of a box, looking through various devboards, looked at my hand and there it was, great…

    So downloaded SI’s production programmer, still works, doesn’t read back only verify and program.. (is the verify download and compare, checksum or compare on chip) saw eclipse mentioned/java and went back to look for a different programming tool, SI have a utility dll from programming, read docs same deal only a memory downloader, check the memory map 0x0 – 0x3FFF with after 0x3DFF reserved.  Once I connect the USB Debug Adapter to the new software it want’s to update the firmware, here we go again, flashes and its OK after a USB reset.

    Connected to the board, downloaded it to a “log file” which is literally a dump of the memory in either dec(with leading zeros)  or hex, and a cr\lf… quick sed script add commas to the dec, load it into an array, oh yeah, leading 0’s so it thinks its base 8 octal. redo it in hex output, add 0x, and end with , read it into an array write it out.

    convert the newer TI supplied hex that didn’t work files to bin from the new 40 version, compare the two against the one I just read. they’re similar at the start, but it is shifted..  I realise the bootloader is there as as a separate hex, it’s loaded from 0x0 – 0x0800, so I chop that off and wrote out the file. they are now only slight differences, 0xFF where 0x00 is in the hex, this is likely a skip in the hex (unlikely since the hex file showed a single section) or the default erase byte .

    Had I been watching the hex2bin output I’d have seen the start address of the firmware as 0x800, so at least independently verified, had too many windows open..

    Lowest address  = 00000800
    Highest address = 00003BDB
    Pad Byte        = 0
    8-bit Checksum = BE

    So now all have to do is reflash the board with the code from the second board that I did not upgrade, so convert the .bin to .hex, either without the bootloader and reflash it with the TI tools, or clone one to the other and reflash with SI adapter.

    Reflashed the whole thing in the end, which reverted it to 28 build.. Still no display when the EM is connected….so either flash on the EM module (which still works in Smart RF) mode or  theres something wrong with the EM module…

     

    and yes reflashed the cc1110 and its back to life!  Probably should have tried that first Smile

     

    SI USB chip docs

    http://www.keil.com/dd/docs/datashts/silabs/c8051f32x.pdf

    SI flash util

    http://www.silabs.com/Support%20Documents/TechnicalDocs/an117.pdf

     

    SmartRF flash programmer to redo the CC1110

    http://www.ti.com/tool/flash-programmer

     
    • Ferdinand 9:35 pm on August 17, 2016 Permalink | Reply

      If you are looking for an IM-ME, shoot me an email. I still have one I don’t use.

      • charliex 9:37 pm on August 17, 2016 Permalink | Reply

        ahh where were you a few months ago, had to ebay one for redonkuoulus amounts. cheers though.

  • charliex 7:04 pm on February 4, 2016 Permalink | Reply  

    Reusing the RPM indicator 

    i wanted an rpm indicator on the mill, i have a handheld one but since it had one originally i thought why not use it.

    since we’re on a vfd don’t need this lot anymore
    apply bandsaw


    i’m using a 12VDC wall wart to power it. you can use the old 120V if you want, just chop it off at the other side of the transformer or use the whole board.
    Remove D1 (this converts the 12VAC from the transformer to 12VDC, you could cut all the way past L1, but this way you get reverse polarity diode protection and some filtering/smoothing.

    attach a power plug.

    add 12VDC

    tadah!
    now i just have to find where i put the optical pickup….

     
  • charliex 11:42 pm on January 27, 2016 Permalink | Reply  

    apologies if blog spam via email, i was copying over a project with a lot of entries.

     
  • charliex 11:42 pm on January 27, 2016 Permalink | Reply  

    Inverter duty motor arrives 

    Just delivered, new motor arrived, this one is an inverter duty rated motor, that means spin it at 100 RPM and you won’t be able to stop it by hand, or at least that is the idea. The GP motor you can stall easily with one hand, it is fine when the VFD frequency is above 30%, below that it’ll struggle.

    This is an eBay special so lets see if its working, keyway is there so that is a good sign. mmca will likely have to lathe a new pulley.

    Uses a 145TC mount so it should just fit into the 56C I made a few weeks ago. The big difference is this motor is 22kilos/50lbs, which is more than double the GP motor, and around 8x the original weight.

     
  • charliex 11:41 pm on January 27, 2016 Permalink | Reply  

    Spindle controlling, and GUI hacks, part #1 

    Probably going to be a longish entry, at least video wise.

    One of the things that’ll improve usage, bit life, finish quality etc is having the computer control the speed of the motor. As i mentioned in the last log the flashcut can’t do it without an upgrade, given a crappy HID numpad with a cover is about $500. I didn’t want to ask. I started to look at Mach3, discovered Mach4 pushed off backlash compensation to the drivers boards I thought I’d try another way. Before I go on, CNC people are the religious types, like car people. Backlash is bad, can do terrible things, but being able to correct small amounts of it for certain things is useful to me, it is a tool and like any tool it can be used incorrectly, but I still want the option to do it.

    All I had as an output on the FlashCut box was 1/0 low voltage digital on the controller side, and 0-24v or measuring resistance on the VFD wasn’t a whole lot to go on, sure I could buffer the signals but that is still on/off , can’t make a DAC since not enough control of the lines.. Really basic stuff.

    I’d picked up the Automation Direct RS485 to USB adapter that allows me to connect to the VFD to program it. The software doesn’t control the speed just the programming. I took a look around and didn’t see much available, it is modbus which is fairly common in SCADA etc. Never used it before, I believe the internals of the FlashCut might have some modbus going on. I knew other people had used the modbus support in Mach3 so it can be done, but how to the flashcut gcode controller software to the modbus of the VFD.

    I poked around and switched on the 0-10V display of the RPM in flashcut this pops up a slider and a text input box to allow you to either type in the RPM or move it up and down, so i figured all i have to do is read that out and we’ve got the RPM value.

    This is what the loopymind HAD DXF logo looks like in flashcut

    So at the bottom in the middle is the RPM edit box. This is a generic windows GUI element we can read it from somewhere else, consider it like a file system. It stores named objects that contain data we interpret, so we don’t need to know the location of the RPM variable in FlashCut’s memory space, we just need the GUI’s data which means we don’t need to hook or mess with FlashCut at all, which is desirable for something like CNC..

    I’m using Microsoft Visual Studio C++ 2016 here, but it is mostly the same procedure for the last dozen or so versions.

    In the development tool-set there is something called Spy++ that allows us to watch windows messages and interrogate the GUI, very useful tool. It’s usually on the Tools menu of Visual Studio or you can just run it from the start menu.

    Run it and you’ll get something like this :-

    We can even see this post i’m writing now listed as a window. These are a list of the Windows in the GUI, Windows (the OS) treats a lot of things like Windows(the GUI) so you can see tool tips (the little popups that show when you hover with the mouse),, there are some hidden apps/windows, Mostly visual studio windows here.

    We’re going to use the Window Search feature to find the FlashCut window handle, so run the application you want to take a look at and then in the Search menu of Spy++ use the Windows Search popup.

    Apparently I also some allergies going on.

    OK, so now we know what we’re looking for there is a Window class called "Edit" which is the name for a standard windows edit box.

    We’ll also need a library to chat to the modbus, I found libmodbus and made some windows style changes for it and added a 64 bit version of it, that is on my GitHub https://github.com/charlie-x/libmodbus it does have some specific changes for window, i changed the f/printf’s to switch to the debug message system windows uses and started to remove the errno to their version since i don’t like the idea of one variable for all errors, and a few changes for 64 bit and some of the newer API’s. It is forked from the original.

    Next we will fire up Visual Studio and start creating the application GUI, probably better to watch this one full screen,

     

    So the next steps are to track down the values from FlashCut and reflect them in our GUI, for that we’ll go back to Visual Studio and start adding code.

    This video goes through finding the window, capturing the values and reflecting them in our UI.

    We’ve pulled out all the information we need, and no need of reversing or disassembling at all. We’re not even really looking inside FlashCut, just querying the Windows GUI. This technique works for most MFC/Windows apps.If we’ve learnt anything so far, it is SUCCESS has two Cs !

    In part 2 I’ll connect up libmodbus and start talking to the drive itself.

     
  • charliex 11:39 pm on January 27, 2016 Permalink | Reply  

    Spent more time making new parts, than upgrading the machine 

    More of a blog entry than a project one.

    Sort of a milestone this weekend, we actually spent time making parts for a robot we’re trying to get ready before the end of the month. For a short while it was even like a normal CNC shop where we are popping stock on, cutting it, and repeating.

    One thing that happened was during cutting and such, the power went out, on a couple of circuits in the house for a brief moment, no breakers tripped, computers reset (added a ups to the computer+cnc controller) and hte cnc controller had a few disconnects, which has never happened before the VFD/drive update, funny that huh?

    Of course we need a lot of things to sit between the power from the house (and apparently its a requirement from the power company according to internets) and other things to sit between the VFD + motor. VFD’s generate a lot of noise/EMI/F and in general do bad things to power, but do awesome things with motors like spin it at 2hZ magic !?!

    So we have inline fuses, EMI line filters, zero phase reactor, which is a cool name for an RF filter which helps with current spikes and bad harmonics being introduced to the motor, helping it run cooler and last longer. also line reactors lcvette on cnczone made a nice list, which i found of course after we saw the issues.

    http://www.automationdirect.com/adc/Overview/Catalog/Drives/AC_Drive_(VFD)_Spare_Parts_-a-_Accessories/AC_Line_Reactors

    Adding all that stuff should keep the rest of the equipment running without being spiked, its already bad enough we’re running CNC machines via USB but that is another issue altogether ( also usb is in general just terrible )

    Next we ran into issues with the general purpose motor, which was expected since a general purpose motor can’t deliver the torque at low RPM’s with VFD control, you need an inverter duty motor which can do all sorts of fancy things, normally they’re about double the cost, but ebay always seems to have a stock of them, i like the marathon black maxes,, it is 50lbs. vs the 25lbs of the current motor. and it’s 1.5 HP however we need low RPM’s for drilling etc, once you go below about 31 hZ on the VFD the torque drops off dramatically.

    Luckily a 145TC mount should fit into a 56C mount , different shaft size so a new pulley anyway, its a 1800 RPM vs 3600 RPM but we should be able to overspeed it 2x, and also a larger pulley , 4" is the current thinking.

    we’ll put the 1HP motor on another machine, so it won’t go to waste.

    The motor probably won’t arrive til next week, so we’ll have to brave on with the "oh look i can stop it with my hand at <1000 RPM" motor. On that note, does anyone else worry about VFD control that uses a membrane keypad to start the motor versus a nice e-stop style switch, you think a lot about these things while trying to remove a 3" face mill which someone put 20 lbs of torque on.

    You can wire up a 24V style run/stop switch to the VFD but since its a digital input around a lot of noise (albeit 24V) it still makes me think about a disconnecting switch. I’m sure its completely fine though in a few weeks expect a , and yes i have less fingers and a giant hole in my hand now update.

    So far the VFD has been great, you lose the pot to set the speed on the GS3 vs the GS2 so its an up/down and a bit of a chorse, so adding an RS485 to USB(sigh) so the super fancy FlashCUT PRO 8A Stepper control can control it you say, well no turns out the $3000 or so can’t handle 24V, IO, not can it talk to a VFD directly, and no 0-10V , the plethora of Mach3/4 controllers for about $150-$500 do support it. To be completely fair there is an add board (or two) that you can install inside the PRO series FlashCUT, but i’m betting its at least $500 to add which is outrageous and their jog controller is still a crappy USB pad that adds yet more latency to the system, it’s still pretty much a closed system with no cool scripting, so i’m feeling a move to Mach4 coming on. I hadn’t considered it because I like the backlash compensation, turns out Mach3/4 supports that. As far as i know there are no open source CNC controllers with backlash compensation, its really useful because you can do this sort of thing

    A fit bearing directly off the machine, with no boring bar just an end mill. this is really hard to do on lead screws, and on C7 ballscrews still hard on a hobby level CNC, since backlash. Backlash is the amount of movement the axis motor has to make when reversing direction to physically move the head, its like slack , you know like when you move your steering wheel back and forth and theres some give on the rack/pinion before it engages, similar thing. backlash compensation knows about that slack which is fairly constant and computes where to add it on so it knows to move a little bit extra when changing directions.

    Circles are one of the worst cases for a machine with backlash, i’ve covered it before and shown results which on the leadscrew/base FlashCUT were awful, they’re barely what you could call circles and now we’re end milling, deburring the edge and dropping bearings in.. just like that, thats because of backlash compensation, sure you can try, and you should, to remove mechanical backlash as much as possible, but even a mori seki/hass has backlash compensation, they even have pitch correction etc, since a ballscrew might not be entirely linear movement and there will be spots where one rotation doesn’t move as far as in another spot.

    Circles are bad since they have a lot of axis reversals during the cut, we’d improved it no end before. This time though we started in on the smoothing and acceleration curves of the motor control. Setting how fast it would accelerate . This also helps with cutting as well as it allows smoother transitions between GCODE operations and allows them to calculate say a single axis line move + an arc into one smooth movement with no pauses. Think of it like driving again take the track, the difference between you knowing the layout of a blind corner and never having seen it, with the known corner you transition from the straight into the curve, hitting the apex, having reached corner speed at entry, and then smoothly powering out of the corner into the straight, much smoother. If you don’t know anything about where you’re going,, you would generally approach slower, not take a smooth line and lots of corrections, then not be the right speed for leaving the corner, its slower, and less optimum and possibly loss of some rubber and nerves. backlash compensation+accelerating profiles = knowing where you’re going. I see lots of the projects saying its not needed, or low priority, but it is very useful to get the machine producing better results. its a shopping trip to walmart vs a lotus exige at buttonwillow.

    Different types of CNC’s with belts and so on have lower backlash, but belts stretch, so there is always something. Sure its arguable that lead screws are so bad that its not worth it, but it does make a huge difference.

    We also started to build the Y extension for the table, its 5 holes.. I could have drill pressed it…

    Faced it off to make both sides parallel, using custom soft jaws to hold it. we could face mill at 12IPM , and were cutting at 0.05" which is so much better than the old motor.

    here is a finishing pass. very dull to watch, but surface quality is great.

    and then drilling the holes, we ran into some more issues here, i added my own flood coolant device and lots of air, the issue was these holes are really deep at 2.5" so the chips built up in the third hole and they weren’t clearing so we broke the 3" carbide end mill, only one too so i finished it up on the drill press. This ended up being a 5 hour process, the above bearing cut only took 30 minutes… strange how that goes.

    and here is a video of us , not using my awesome flood coolant system and an almost entire bottle of WD40, we’re still working on the source of that squawky metallic noise on the opposing corners, could be spindle misaligned, bearings, tool chatter, harmonics, spice girls, space radiation etc.

    not ooo much interesting going on except, omg that noise.

    you’d think surface quality would be altered significantly, but not really. anyway that is it for now, i’m missing the pictures of the 8 other parts we made that same day, since in the words of AvE it was chooching along. Next week, add extension cable to VFD, add filters, install RS485 link, maybe a new motor install, and finish robot (most people are just building the robot, we’re still making the machine to make the robot)

    Oh and our awesome little harbor freight horizontal saw snapped its blade after many hours of cutting, popped a new one and off it went, still our favourite little workhorse, mmca even cut some 6061 stock on the hitachi 12" chop saw with a wood blade.

     
  • charliex 11:37 pm on January 27, 2016 Permalink | Reply  

    Motor mounts, motor mounting and testing. 

    Got back from CES all ready to mount the new as yet to be tested motor.

    First the intro video… yes more upbeat music from googles expansive library of music.

    head spacer ready to mount

    this is where it mounts to on the machine

    the centre bolt is M12 adding on about 2.5" inches to the original, ended up about 6".

    like so

    then the other side of the spacer connects to here.

    underneath on the head where the bolts come in there was some flashing that made it hard to insert the long bolt, so i ground it away.

    mounted it to the head and bolted it down so we can centre punch holes for the two m4 bolts we’ve added .

    using a tap guide and drilling out the cast for the new holes. cast iron is messy to work with, its a good idea to keep cleaning it up and keep it away from any moving parts, motors, ways etc.

    removing the Z column bearing/motor mount

    removing the motor speed controller, off switch f/r box etc. we don’t need this anymore since its a VFD now, though i wanted to keep the RPM part.

    mounted the head onto the spacer

    bolted it up and its done for now, this is a temp piece while we decide if we want to go to a steel spacer. we need this to fit the motor, though it hurts our Y travel til we extend the bed.

    The side rails we did last week.

    these need to be pocket out for clearance for the pan head bolts that are on the motor plate.

    the motors been arcing quite badly in the last few weeks, we’re hoping it lasts for these few cuts.

    cutting down some bolts to fit the Head extension

    the bolts needs to have a T shape so they wont spin in the head mount. so grinder again.

    test mount, the clearance at the back is off , it ends up looking like a green latern symbol , the more we see the motor on here, the less it seems oversized.

    we have to drill and tap holes in the side of the cast to mount the plates.

    after a test mount we realised the blocks were too long, so had to cut off a bit from the ends, after they’d been nicely CNC’d luckily this is the mill cut side. harbor freight horizontal bandsaw again

    marking out the area to remove from the back to stop the Z motor square hitting it. the white is a marker that doesn’t get easily removed as sharpie.

    motor isn’t that big!

    next is to punch , drill and tap the holes in the cast

    new bolts added, they’re M6 20mm

    also added on the two blocks per side, the motor plate attaches to these.

    more tapping

    and its mounted

    we’ve been having some issues with the tormach TTS pulling down during cutting, you can see the results of that on the back left of the plate. A PDF on tormach’s website says its because its not clean, so we’ll try that. http://www.tormach.com/uploads/163/TD31090_ToolHolding-pdf.html

    mounted the motor plate marking the holes to drill in the top. M6’s again

    after its bolted up i wanted to test the clearance. hand drill works great.

    the top of the motor fan cover would have clipped it, so chopped off the edge of the aluminium channel.

    all mounted, drilled and tapped. time to see if the stepper can move the all the new weight.

    we stopped at 100IPM not bad, no point going faster.

    time to wire the motor

    we’re using 240V so tie both sides together l1/l2/l3, connect all the INS (t4/t5/t6) to themselves and insulate(thats what INS means)

    the motor plate shows the wiring. we then used wire nuts + extension coord + ground to run to the VFD.

    running the 220V, i used a dryer cable which is massively overkill, ended up wire nuts + smaller gauge wire to feed into the VFD

    knotty!

    i’d added the breaker box and outlet previously, so just need to be plugged in, again massive overkill.

    and fire up the motor! (now at this point there is something we should have checked and didn’t) you might spot it..

    VFD wiring, dead simple two hots + ground to the 220V outlet, and then three phases to the motor + ground to the machine. the order is important.

    ahem, i’ll explain later… also brake is for a resistor to help slow the motor

    This is a GS2 which isn’t a sensorless vector, which we didn’t realise, it was the one recommended by Automation Direct, and its perfectly fine however we wanted the sensorless +auto tune etc, so i emailed the people at AD and say we just wired it up , did a couple of test cuts/runs and realised, so can we upgrade to the GS3. To be honest i was expecting them to tell me where to go and was preparing to say to the wife, not only do we want to go to a bigger motor but we might have to buy a second VFD since the first is potentially the wrong one.

    However AD emailed me back in the morning with a return slip and said just pay for the GS3-22PO , and we’ll refund after getting the GS2 back. They’ve always been super helpful but i’m real happy about this, luckily for once i saved the packaging and box ( since AD included a note saying so) normally i’m usually we’ll figure out another use for it.

    So they’re sending me out a GS3 tonight and we’ll wire it up this weekend, next is an inverter duty motor upgrade, probably 1.5HP is the sweet spot… thank you Automation Direct.. The advice they gave me for the GS2+1HP motor is perfectly fine, we just want the fancy features, it is about $40 more.

    Now there is a couple of videos missing of the first cut, i hope its on my gopro since we decided lets put 1HP into the CAM software and see what happens, 28IPM for a .250" end mill with 0.76" DOC is what happened, so we set it up , put on some test material and did some facing with a face mill, no low speed torque, doesn’t cut for toffee. oh well (and this is where we start discussing the sensorless GS3)

    mounted up the .250" bit and tried the new hole, nope , doesn’t cut the material, horrible noises and the motor stalls.. ok half the speed, try again, same thing gets about 1mm into the aluminium, damn .. ok half the speed again, this time regen the CAM , using the math at .37HP ends up at 11 IPM which is about where we cut at with the old motor…. nope still won’t cut, stalls noisy etc… motor is about 3 times bigger, and less capable ? WTFMATE?

    I start looking up new inverter duty motors since we’ve got it it in our head about that constant torque ratio, since we’re running about 40% of the motors frequency, we’re convincing ourselves somethings wrong in the setup.

    I email A.D. about swapping to a GS3. I find a motor they’re all 145TC146 mounts so start CADing, but this time its about 00:30am on Monday morning and we think ok lets pack it in and head home, on the way out of the door , bag in hand, mmca says haha did we check the spindle is spinning the right way, we look and laugh of course it must be.. .then we start to get that dawning moment, surely not… quick switch it all back on and test,….. and yes the motor is spinning the WRONG way, so we’re basically end-milling by scraping the material..

    Ok, swap two of the motor phase wires (T2/T1), bring up the CAM at 11IPM, cuts like butter… 22IPM, same, 28IPM cutting but its chattering, pretty good really since we didn’t expect the machine to handle 28IPM. we notice the TTS is slipping again so abort the cut. But turns out the 1HP general purpose motor is doing just fine so far….

    i’ll dig up the scrapping video when i get home. Also note the T1 and T2 are swapped on the motor connecting on the VFD in the second picture above. that is correct T2/T1/T3 from the motor.

    til next week!. And thanks again Paula from Automation Direct.

     
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